C++ Tutorial - GeeksforGeeks (2024)

Last Updated : 28 Nov, 2022


C++ is a general-purpose programming language and widely used nowadays for competitive programming. It has imperative, object-oriented and generic programming features. C++ runs on lots of platform like Windows, Linux, Unix, Mac etc. C++ is an efficient and powerful language and finds wide use in various GUI platforms, 3D graphics and real-time simulations. Because of the inclusion of rich function libraries, working in C++ becomes simpler and convenient than C. Being object-oriented programming like Java, C++ provides the support of inheritance, polymorphism, encapsulation, etc. Unlike C, C++ allows exception handling and function overloading. Bringing in the important topics under one roof, this tutorial to C++ is a very efficient and convenient way to learn C++ from scratch.

C++ Tutorials – A standard hierarchical approach

Below is the complete step-by-step tutorial showing how to get started with C++ and make yourself proficient in it.

  1. About C++: To begin with let’s lay the foundation by knowing how and why C++ as a programming language is so important and what uses it finds in the field of computer science and programming.
  2. Setting up the Environment: After gaining a brief introduction on C++, the next step is to know how to get the most out of this language by implementing various programs in it. C++ runs on lots of platform like Windows, Linux, Unix, Mac, etc. Before we start programming with C++. We will need an environment to be set-up on our local computer to compile and run our C++ programs successfully. If you do not want to set up a local environment you can also use online IDEs for compiling your program.
  3. Basics in C++: So after setting up the language, let’s begin to harness the basics and build a conceptual framework on how to write the programs and various provisions the language has to provide to the geeks. In this article, we would start right from writing our first C++ program to learning Input/Output, Operators, Variables, Loops etc.
  4. Functions in C++: A function is a set of statements that take inputs, do some specific computation and produces output. The idea is to put some commonly or repeatedly done task together and make a function, so that instead of writing the same code again and again for different inputs, we can call the function.
  5. Arrays in C++: An array is collection of items stored at contiguous memory locations. We can use normal variables (v1, v2, v3, ..) when we have a small number of objects, but if we want to store a large number of instances, it becomes difficult to manage them with normal variables. The idea of an array is to represent many instances in one variable.
  6. Strings in C++: Strings are defined as an array of characters. The difference between a character array and a string is that string is terminated with a special character ‘\0’. These are used to work with multiple characters and various special characters. Unlike C, C++ provides users with a rich library to make the operations on string easier and effective to implement.
  7. Pointers are symbolic representation of addresses. They enable programs to simulate call-by-reference as well as to create and manipulate dynamic data structures. The reason we associate data type to a pointer is that it knows how many bytes the data is stored in. When we increment a pointer, we increase the pointer by the size of the data type to which it points.
  8. Classes and Objects in C++: The building block of C++ that leads to Object-Oriented programming is a Class. It is a user-defined data type, which holds its own data members and member functions, which can be accessed and used by creating an instance of that class. A class is like a blueprint for an object. An Object is an instance of a Class. When a class is defined, no memory is allocated but when it is instantiated (i.e. an object is created) memory is allocated.
  9. Object-Oriented Programming in C++: As the name suggests uses objects in programming. Object-oriented programming aims to implement real-world entities like inheritance, hiding, polymorphism, etc in programming. The main aim of OOP is to bind together the data and the functions that operate on them so that no other part of the code can access this data except that function.
  10. Namespaces in C++: Namespaces allow us to group named entities that otherwise would have global scope into narrower scopes, giving them namespace scope. This allows organizing the elements of programs into different logical scopes referred to by names. The namespace is a feature added in C++ and not present in C. A namespace is a declarative region that provides a scope to the identifiers (names of the types, function, variables etc) inside it. Multiple namespace blocks with the same name are allowed. All declarations within those blocks are declared in the named scope.
  11. Preprocessor in C++: As the name suggests Preprocessors are programs that processes our source code before compilation. There are a number of steps involved between writing a program and executing a program in C / C++. Let us have a look at these steps before we actually start learning about Preprocessors.
  12. Templates in C++: A template is a simple and yet very powerful tool in C++. The simple idea is to pass data type as a parameter so that we don’t need to write the same code for different data types. For example, a software company may need sort() for different data types. Rather than writing and maintaining the multiple codes, we can write one sort() and pass data type as a parameter. C++ adds two new keywords to support templates: ‘template’ and ‘typename’. The second keyword can always be replaced by keyword ‘class’.
  13. STL in C++: The Standard Template Library (STL) is a set of C++ template classes to provide common programming data structures and functions such as lists, stacks, arrays, etc. It is a library of container classes, algorithms, and iterators. It is a generalized library and so, its components are parameterized. Working knowledge of template classes is a prerequisite for working with STL.
  14. Exception Handling in C++: One of the advantages of C++ over C is Exception Handling. Exceptions are run-time anomalies or abnormal conditions that a program encounters during its execution. There are two types of exceptions namely, Synchronous and Asynchronous exceptions. C++ provides try, catch and throw for this purpose.
  15. Files and Streams in C++: In C++, files are mainly dealt by using three classes fstream, ifstream, ofstream available in fstream headerfile. ofstream class is used while writing on files, ifstream class is used to read from files and fstream class is used to both read and write from/to files.
  16. Dynamic Memory in C++: Dynamic memory allocation in C/C++ refers to performing memory allocation manually by programmer. Dynamically allocated memory is allocated on Heap and non-static and local variables get memory allocated on Stack (Refer Memory Layout C Programs for details).
  17. Signal Handling in C++: Signals are the interrupts that force an OS to stop its ongoing task and attend the task for which the interrupt has been sent. These interrupts can pause service in any programs of an OS. Similarly, C++ also offers various signals which it can catch and process in a program.
  18. Multithreading in C++: Multithreading support was introduced in C+11. Prior to C++11, we had to use POSIX threads or p threads library in C. While this library did the job the lack of any standard language provided feature-set caused serious portability issues. C++ 11 did away with all that and gave us std::thread. The thread classes and related functions are defined in the thread header file.

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C++ Tutorial - GeeksforGeeks (2024)


Is GeeksforGeeks C++ course good? ›

GeeksforGeeks offer a good range of material for c++ language. It is a good platform to practice c++ with examples but learning wise you do not get much content to read and understand the language. The content is not in a managed way.

What is the best tutorial for C++? ›

  • C++ For C Programmers [Coursera]
  • C++: From Beginner to Expert [Udemy]
  • C++ Fundamentals Including C++ 17 By Kate Gregory [Pluralsight]
  • C++ Essential Training.
  • Learn C++ from Codecademy for Free [ CodeCademy ]
  • Beginning C++ Programming — From Beginner to Beyond [Udemy]
  • Learn C++ from Scratch for Free [Educative]
Feb 22, 2024

How should I practice C++ for beginners? ›

C++ Basic Exercises
  1. Write a program in C++ to find Size of fundamental data types. ...
  2. Write a program in C++ to print the sum of two numbers using variables. ...
  3. Write a program in C++ to check the upper and lower limits of integer. ...
  4. Write a program in C++ to check whether the primitive values crossing the limits or not.

Is C++ harder than Python? ›

Python's syntax is a lot closer to English and so it is easier to read and write, making it the simplest type of code to learn how to write and develop with. The readability of C++ code is weak in comparison and it is known as being a language that is a lot harder to get to grips with.

Is C++ too hard for beginners? ›

C++ has a complex syntax that can be overwhelming for beginners. On the other hand, some programmers argue that the syntax is one of the strengths of the language. C++ has a rich set of features that allow programmers to write expressive and concise code.

What is the hardest part of learning C++? ›

While C++ is a powerful language, it is also considered one of the most challenging to learn due to its complex syntax and steep learning curve. One of the main reasons C++ is so difficult to learn is its syntax. Unlike other programming languages, C++ has a lot of rules and exceptions that can be hard to remember.

What are big 3 methods C++? ›

The rule of three (also known as the law of the big three or the big three) is a rule of thumb in C++ (prior to C++11) that claims that if a class defines any of the following then it should probably explicitly define all three: destructor. copy constructor. copy assignment operator.

What is the most efficient way to learn C++? ›

Books are a great way to learn about programming languages in great detail. With a lot of explanations about how intricate functionalities of a programming language work, knowledge from a good book on C or C++ can give you the upper hand while using these languages for your projects.

How long does it take to learn C++ fully? ›

it depends a basic level of C++ can take 1-3 years maybe. It depends on the dedication and perseverance. Master it can take more than a decade. It is a deep language with a lot of side stuff.

What is the best IDE for C++ for beginners? ›

Top 10 Best IDE for C++ 2024
  1. Visual Studio Code (VS Code) Visual Studio Code (VS Code) is one of the most widely used IDEs for C++. ...
  2. Eclipse. Eclipse is another popular C++ IDE that is easy to use for new programmers. ...
  3. NetBeans. ...
  4. Atom. ...
  5. Dev C++ ...
  6. CLion. ...
  7. QTCreator. ...
  8. Xcode.
May 8, 2024

What should I do before learning C++? ›

A great way to get started with C++ is to learn about its history. C++ is one of the oldest programming languages, so there are many different versions. Having a sense of this history will situate you in the community of C++ programmers and give you a sense of its capabilities.

Is C++ alone enough to get a job? ›

C++ is one of the most popular language, so it shouldn't be a big problem finding a job. If you have enough free time I think it is a good idea to start studying another language, like Java or Python. Try to search for your ideal job on internet, to see what employers/companies are looking for.

Is C++ harder than Java? ›

Most experts will tell you that Java is easier to learn. It's a newer language than C++ and isn't as complex in its principles or execution. However, there's more to consider than a language's learning curve. Selecting a programming language comes down to what you want to do with it.

Is C++ easy if I know C? ›

It depends on exactly which question you are asking. Knowing C will directly benefit you when learning C++. All your C knowledge will still be relevant and useful. Learning some features of C++ starting from your knowledge of C, and using that to make some programs, is easy.

What can I do with C++ alone? ›

Many highly used GUI (Graphical User Interface) based and desktop applications are developed with C++ due to its high speed. Some examples are applications of Adobe systems like Illustrator, Photoshop, and Win Amp Media Player from Microsoft – these are all developed using C++.

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