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St. Louis (pronounced /seɪntˈluːɪs/ in English, /sɛ̃ lwi/ (help·info) in French), sometimes written Saint Louis, encompasses an independent city in the U.S. state of Missouri (the "City of St. Louis") and its metropolitan area (Greater St. Louis). This area includes counties in the states of Missouri and Illinois; it is the 18th largest in the United States. The population as of 2005 (which has grown since the 2000 U.S. census) is approximately 2,786,728 according to the St. Louis Regional Chamber and Growth Association (RCGA). (The population as of the 2000 census had been approximately 2,698,672).

The city, which is named after Louis IX of France, is adjacent to, but not part of, St. Louis County, Missouri which is unique situation relative to other metropolitan areas. This separation between St. Louis city and St. Louis County skews the statistics, especially when St. Louis news events are reported in the media.

The city has several common nicknames, including the "Gateway City", "Gateway to the West", and "Mound City". St. Louis is also sometimes called "St. Louie", or "River City". Alternatively, many young people who live in St. Louis have begun to call it "The Lou". Another popular synonym for St. Louis is "STL" in reference to the airport code for the city (STL) and a long-standing use of an interlocked S, T, and L by the St. Louis Cardinals baseball team.

Contents [hide]

1 History

1.1 City founding and early history

1.2 19th Century expansion and growth

1.3 St. Louis during the Gilded Age

1.4 Early 20th century

1.5 Recent developments

2 Geography

2.1 Metropolitan statistical area

2.2 Cityscape

2.3 Climate

2.4 Flora and fauna

3 People and culture

3.1 Demographics

3.2 Cuisine

3.3 Museums and other points of interest

3.4 Media

3.5 Music

3.6 Parks and outdoor attractions

3.7 Sports

4 Government

5 Economy

6 Education

6.1 Public education

6.2 Private education

6.3 Colleges and universities

7 Medicine

8 Transportation

9 Crime and social issues

10 Sister cities

11 See also

12 External links

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History

Main article: History of St. Louis, Missouri

Prior to the arrival of French explorers in 1673 the area that would become St. Louis was a major center of the Mississippian mound builders. The presence of numerous mounds, now almost all destroyed, earned the later city the nickname of "Mound City."

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City founding and early history

European exploration of the area had begun nearly a century before the city was founded. Louis Joliet and Jacques Marquette, both French, traveled through the Mississippi River valley in 1673, and five years later, La Salle claimed the entire valley for France. He called it "Louisiana" after King Louis XIV; the French also called their region "Illinois Country." In 1699, a settlement was established across the river from what is now St. Louis, at Cahokia. Other early settlements were downriver at Kaskaskia, Prairie du Pont, Fort de Chartres, and Sainte Genevieve. In 1703, Catholic priests established a small mission at what is now St. Louis. The mission was later moved across the Mississippi, but the small river at the site (now a drainage channel near the southern boundary of the City of St. Louis) still bears the name "River Des Peres" (River of the Fathers).

In 1763, Pierre Laclède, his 13-year-old "stepson" Auguste Chouteau, and a small band of men traveled up the Mississippi from New Orleans. In November, they landed a few miles downstream of the river's confluence with the Missouri River at a site where wooded limestone bluffs rose 40 feet above the river. The men returned to Fort de Chartres for the winter, but in February, Laclede sent Chouteau and 30 men to begin construction. The settlement was established on February 15, 1764.

The settlement began to grow quickly after word arrived that the 1763 Treaty of Paris had given England all the land east of the Mississippi. Frenchmen who had settled to the river's east moved across the water to "Laclede's Village." Other early settlements were established nearby at Saint Charles, Carondelet (now a part of the city of St. Louis), Fleurissant (renamed Saint Ferdinand under the Spaniards and now Florissant), and Portage des Sioux. In 1765, St. Louis was made the capital of Upper Louisiana.

Apotheosis of Saint Louis, a bronze statue of the city's namesake on horseback, was widely used as a symbol of the city before construction of the Arch.

An aerial view of downtown looking south.From 1766 to 1768, St. Louis was governed by the French lieutenant governor, Louis Saint Ange de Bellerive. After 1768, St. Louis was governed by a series of Spanish governors, whose administration continued even after Louisiana was secretly returned to France in 1800 by the Treaty of San Ildefonso. The town's population was then about a thousand.

St. Louis was acquired from France by the United States under President Thomas Jefferson in 1803, as part of the Louisiana Purchase. The transfer of power from Spain was made official in a ceremony called "Three Flags Day." On March 8, 1804, the Spanish flag was lowered and the French one raised. On March 10, the French flag was replaced by the United States flag.

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19th Century expansion and growth

The Lewis and Clark Expedition left the St. Louis area in May 1804, reached the Pacific Ocean in the summer of 1805, and returned on 23 September 1806. Many other explorers, settlers, and trappers (such as Ashley's Hundred) would later take a similar route to the West. Missouri became a state in 1820. St. Louis was incorporated as a city on December 9, 1822. A U.S. arsenal was constructed at St. Louis in 1827.

The steamboat era began in St. Louis on July 27, 1817, with the arrival of the "Zebulon M. Pike." Rapids north of the city made St. Louis the northernmost navigable port for many large boats, and "Pike" and her sisters soon transformed St. Louis into a bustling boomtown, commercial center, and inland port. By the 1850s, St. Louis had become the largest U.S. city west of Pittsburgh, and the second-largest port in the country, with a commercial tonnage exceeded only by New York.

Immigrants flooded into St. Louis after 1840, particularly from Germany, Bohemia, Italy and Ireland, the latter driven by an Old World potato famine. The population of St. Louis grew from fewer than 20,000 in 1840, to 77,860 in 1850, to just over 160,000 by 1860.

Two disasters occurred in 1849: a cholera epidemic killed nearly one-tenth of the population, and a fire destroyed numerous steamboats and a large portion of the city. These disasters led to political action: old cemeteries were removed to the outskirts of the town; sinkholes were filled and swamps drained; water and sewer public utilities started; and a new building code required structures to be built of stone or brick.

In the first half of the 19th century, a second channel developed in the Mississippi River at St. Louis. An island ("Bloody Island") formed between the two channels, and a smaller island ("Duncan's Island") developed below St. Louis. It was feared that the levee at St. Louis might be left high and dry, and federal assistance was sought and obtained. Under the supervision of Robert E. Lee, levees were constructed on the Illinois side to direct water toward the Missouri side and eliminate the second channel. Bloody Island was joined to the land on the Illinois side, and Duncan's Island was washed away.

Militarily, the Civil War (1861-1865) barely touched St. Louis; the area saw only a few skirmishes in which Union forces prevailed. But the war shut down trade with the South, devastating the city's economy. Missouri was nominally a slave state, but its economy did not depend on slavery, and it never seceded from the Union. The arsenal at St. Louis was used during the war to construct ironclad ships for the Union.

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St. Louis during the Gilded Age

On July 4, 1876 the City of St. Louis voted to secede from St. Louis County and become an independent city. At that time the County was primarily rural and sparsely populated, and the fast-growing City did not want to spend their tax dollars on infrastructure and services for the inefficient county. The move also allowed some in St. Louis government to increase their political power.

"The City of St. Louis has affected me more deeply than any other environment has ever done, I consider myself fortunate to have been born here, rather than in Boston, or New York, or London."

—T.S. Eliot on St. Louis

As St. Louis grew and prospered during the late 19th and early 20th Century, the city produced a number of notable people in the fields of business and literature. The Ralston-Purina company (headed by the Danforth Family) was headquartered in the city, and Anheuser-Busch, the world's largest brewery, remains a fixture of the city's economy. The City was home to both International Shoe and the Brown Shoe Company. Notable residents in the field of literature included poets Sara Teasdale, and T.S. Eliot as well as playwright Tennessee Williams.

St. Louis is one of several cities that claims to have the world's first skyscraper. The Wainwright Building, a 10-story structure designed by Louis Sullivan and built in 1892, still stands at Chestnut and Seventh Streets and is today used by the State of Missouri as a government office building.

Nikola Tesla made the first public demonstration of radio communication here in 1893. Addressing the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and the National Electric Light Association, he described and demonstrated in detail the principles of radio communication. The apparatus that he used contained all the elements that were incorporated into radio systems before the development of the vacuum tube.

In 1896, one of the deadliest and most destructive tornadoes in U.S. history struck St. Louis and East St. Louis. The confirmed death toll is 255, with some estimates above 400, and injuries over 1,000. It left a mile wide continuous swath of destroyed homes, factories, mills, saloons, hospitals, schools, parks, churches, and railroad yards. Damages adjusted for inflation (1997 USD) make it the costliest tornado in U.S. history at an estimated $2.9 billion. Several other tornadoes have hit the city making it the worst tornado afflicted large city in the U.S.; with the most deadly and destructive occurring in 1871 (9 killed), 1890 (4 killed), 1904 (3 killed, 100 injured), 1927 (79 killed, 550 injured), and 1959 (21 killed, 345 injured).

By the time of the 1900 census, St. Louis was the fourth largest city in the country [1]. In 1904, the city hosted a World's Fair and the Olympic Games, making the United States the first English-speaking country to host the Olympics. Citizens of St. Louis still look back fondly on the events of 1904; there were several events held in 2004 to commemorate the centennial.

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Early 20th century

St. Louis experienced major expansion in the early 20th century due to the formation of many industrial companies. The city reached its peak population at the 1950 census, reflecting a national housing shortage after World War II. The continued trend of suburban development and highway construction shifted the population into the St. Louis County suburbs over the next several decades. While the overall population of the St. Louis MSA has always been growing, the St. Louis city population, as discussed below, is increasing once again.

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Recent developments

Washington Avenue Loft DistrictRecently, there has been a significant upturn in construction in Downtown St. Louis. The Bottle District, an entertainment district named after a large Vess soda bottle that stands near Interstate 70, will open in spring 2007 and will be located in an area just north of the Edward Jones Dome. The St. Louis Cardinals' new Busch Stadium opened in 2006. Ballpark Village will be built where the former Busch Stadium stood. For several years, the Washington Avenue Loft District has been gentrifying with an expanding corridor along Washington Avenue from the Edwards Jones Dome westward almost two dozen blocks. Rehabilitation of other downtown areas is planned, such as around the Old Post Office, Cupples warehouses and St. Louis Centre. The Forest Park Southeast neighborhood near the Missouri Botanical Garden and the old Gaslight Square district are also going through extensive renovations.

While the overall population of the St. Louis MSA has steadily increased over the years, the St. Louis city population is growing again following a half-century of decline reversing the trend of population shift to St. Louis County. As of 2005, the City of St. Louis' population has grown over what it was at the time of the 2000 Census.

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Geography

Main article: Geography of St. Louis, Missouri

A simulated-color satellite image of the St. Louis area taken on NASA's Landsat 4.According to the United States Census Bureau, St. Louis has a total area of 171.3 km² (66.2 mi²). 160.4 km² (61.9 mi²) of it is land and 11.0 km² (4.2 mi² or 6.39%) of it is water. With its exact coordinates located at 38°38′53″N, 90°12′44″W (38.648056, -90.212222).GR1, the city is built primarily on bluffs and terraces that rise 100-200 feet above the western banks of the Mississippi River, just south of the Missouri-Mississippi confluence. Much of the area is a fertile and gently rolling prairie that features low hills and broad, shallow valleys. Both the Mississippi River and the Missouri River have cut large valleys with wide flood plains.

Limestone and dolomite of the Mississippian epoch underlies the area and much of the city is a karst area, with numerous sinkholes and caves, although most of the caves have been sealed shut; many springs are visble along the riverfront. Significant deposits of coal, brick clay, and millerite ore were once mined in the city, and the predominant surface rock, the St. Louis Limestone, is used as dimension stone and rubble for construction.

The Rivers around St. LouisThe St. Louis Geologic fault is exposed along the bluffs and was the source of several historic minor earthquakes; it is part of the St. Louis Anticline which has some petroleum and natural gas deposits outside of the city. St. Louis is also just north of the New Madrid Seismic Zone which in 1811-12 produced a series of earthquakes that are the largest known in the contiguous United States. Seismologists estimate 90% probability of a magnitude 6.0 earthquake by 2040 and 7-10% probability of a magnitude 8.0 [2], such tremors could create significant damage across a large region of the central U.S. including St. Louis.

Near the southern boundary of the City of St. Louis (separating it from St. Louis County) is the River des Peres, virtually the only river or stream within the city limits that is not entirely underground. Most of River des Peres was either channelized or put underground in the 1920s and early 1930s. The lower section of the river was the site of some of the worst flooding of the Great Flood of 1993.

Near the central, western boundary of the city is Forest Park, site of the 1904 World's fair, the Louisiana Purchase Exposition of 1904, and the 1904 Summer Olympics, the first Olympic Games held in North America. At the time, St. Louis was the fourth most populous city in the United States.

The Missouri River forms the northern border of St. Louis County, exclusive of a few areas where the river has changed its course. The Meramec River forms most of its southern border. To the east is the City and the Mississippi River.

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Metropolitan statistical area

The St. Louis Metropolitan Statistical Area.The St. Louis Metropolitan Statistical Area is the 18th largest in the United States, and has an estimated total population of 2,786,728 as of July 1, 2005. This area includes Saint Louis County (1,004,666), the independent City of Saint Louis (352,572), the Missouri counties of Saint Charles (329,940), Jefferson (213,669), Franklin (99,090), Lincoln (47,727), Warren (28,764), and Washington (24,032), and the Illinois counties of Madison (264,309), Saint Clair (260,067), Macoupin (49,111), Clinton (36,095), Monroe (31,040), Jersey (22,456), Bond (18,027), and Calhoun (5,163).

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Cityscape

Lafayette Square HomesThe city is divided into 79 neighborhoods. The divisions have no legal standing, although some neighborhood associations administer grants or hold veto power over historic-district development. Nevertheless, the social and political influence of neighborhood identity is profound. Some hold avenues of massive stone edifices built as palaces for heads of state visiting the 1904 World's Fair. Others offer tidy working-class bungalows or loft districts Many of them have successfully retained a remarkable camaraderie that is missing from many American towns today.

Among the best-known, architecturally significant, or well-visited neighborhoods are Downtown, Midtown, Benton Park, Carondelet, the Central West End, Clayton/Tamm (Dogtown), Dutchtown South, Forest Park Southeast, Grand Center, The Hill, Lafayette Square, LaSalle Park, Old North St. Louis, Compton Heights, Shaw (home to the Missouri Botanical Garden and named after the Garden's founder, Henry Shaw), Southwest Garden, Soulard (home of the second-largest Mardi Gras festival in the nation), Tower Grove East, Tower Grove South, Hortense Place (home to many grand mansions) and Wydown/Skinker.

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Climate

St. Louis has a continental temperate climate, and has neither large mountains nor large bodies of water to moderate its temperature. The area is affected by both cold Canadian arctic air, and also hot, humid tropical air from the Gulf of Mexico. The city has four distinct seasons. The average annual temperature for the years 1971-2000, recorded at nearby Lambert–St. Louis International Airport, is 56.3 °F (13.5 °C), and average precipitation is 38.75 inches (980 mm). The normal high temperature in July is 90 °F (32 °C), and the normal low temperature in January is 21 °F (−6 °C), although these values are exceeded at times. Temperatures of 100 °F (38 °C) or more occur no more than five days per year, while temperatures of 0 °F (-17.8 °C) or below occur 2 or 3 days per year on average. The official all-time record low is -22 °F (-30.0 °C) and the record high is 115 °F (46.1 °C).

Winter is the driest season, averaging about 6 inches of total precipitation. Springtime, March through May, is typically the wettest season, with just under 10.5 inches. Dry spells of one or two weeks duration are common during the growing seasons.

St. Louis usually experiences Thunderstorms between 20 and 30 days per year. A few of them can be severe with high winds and occasionally some hail. Other occasional weather events include snowstorms and ice storms.

A period of warm weather late in autumn known as Indian summer can occur – roses will still be in bloom as late as November or early December in some years.

Month [1] Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Avg high °F (°C) 39 (3) 44 (6) 54 (12) 67 (19) 76 (24) 85 (29) 89 (31) 87 (30) 80 (26) 69 (20) 54 (12) 43 (14) 66 (18)

Avg low °F (°C) 21 (−6) 25 (−3) 34 (1) 46 (7) 55 (12) 65 (18) 69 (20) 67 (19) 59 (15) 48 (8) 36 (2) 26 (−3) 46 (7)

Rainfall in. (mm) 2 (51) 2.1 (53) 3.3 (84) 3.6 (91) 3.9 (99) 3.8 (97) 3.8 (97) 3 (84) 3 (84) 2.8 (71) 3.1 (79) 2.6 (66) 37.1 (942)

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Flora and fauna

Before the founding of the city, the area was prairie and open forest maintained by burning by Native Americans. Trees are mainly oak, maple, and hickory, similar to the forests of the nearby Ozarks; common understory trees include Eastern Redbud, Serviceberry, and Flowering Dogwood. Riparian areas are forested with mainly American sycamore. Most of the residential area of the city is planted with large native shade trees. The largest native forest area is found in Forest Park. In Autumn, the changing color of the trees is notable. Most species here are typical of the Eastern Woodland, although numerous decorative non-native species are found; the most notable invasive species is Japanese honeysuckle, which is actively removed from some parks.

Female bald eagle on an egg in nest near Chain of Rocks BridgeLarge mammals found in the city include urbanized coyotes and occasionally a stray whitetail deer. Eastern Gray Squirrel, Cottontail rabbit, and other rodents are abundant, as well as the nocturnal and rarely seen Opossum. Large bird species are abundant in parks and include Canada goose, Mallard duck, as well as shorebirds, including the Great Egret and Great Blue Heron. Gulls are common along the Mississippi River; these species typically follow barge traffic. Winter populations of Bald Eagles are found by the Mississippi River around the Chain of Rocks Bridge. The city is on the Mississippi Flyway, used by migrating birds, and has a large variety of small bird species, common to the eastern U.S. The Eurasian Tree Sparrow, an introduced species, is limited in North America to the counties surrounding St. Louis. Tower Grove Park is a well-known birdwatching area in the city.

Frogs are commonly found in the springtime, especially after extensive wet periods. Common species include the American toad and species of chorus frogs, commonly called "spring peepers" that are found in nearly every pond. Some years have outbreaks of cicadas or ladybugs. Mosquitos and houseflies are common insect nuisances; because of this, windows are nearly universally fitted with screens, and "screened-in" porches are common in homes of the area. Populations of honeybees have sharply declined in recent years, and numerous species of pollinator insects have filled their ecological niche.

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People and culture

Main article: People and culture of St. Louis, Missouri

Social changes in the twentieth century influenced radically the sorts of people who live in St. Louis now. From 1810, the date of the first Federal census, to 1880, the population totals include with the city of St. Louis the population of St. Louis County, which in 1880 was separately enumerated at 31,888 people.

In 1910, 687,029 people lived in the city. 125,706 foreign-born people were residents in 1910. 47,765 of those persons were natives of the German Empire. In 1910, 11.3 per cent of the foreign-born people were of Irish nativity, 4.1 percent of English, 12.3 of Russian, 6 of Italian, and 8.8 of Austrian. 43,960 African Americans composed 6.4% of the total population.

Like other large American cities, St. Louis experienced a large population shift to the suburbs in the twentieth century; first because of increased demand for new housing following the Second World War, and later in response to demographic changes ("white flight"), whether real or perceived, in existing neighborhoods.

Populations of city and county: 1810, 5,667; 1820, 10,049; 1830, 14,145; 1840, 35,979; 1850, 104,978; 1860, 190,524; 1870, 351,189.

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Demographics

As of the censusGR2 of 2000, there were 348,189 people, 147,076 households, and 76,920 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,171.2/km² (5,622.9/mi²). There were 176,354 housing units at an average density of 1,099.7/km² (2,847.9/mi²). The racial makeup of the city of St. Louis (as separate and distinct from St. Louis County and the rest of the MSA) was 51.20% African American, 43.85% White, 1.98% Asian, 0.27% Native American, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.80% from other ethnic groups, and 1.88% of two or more ethnicities. Hispanic or Latino of any ethnic group were 2.02% of the population. Historically, North St. Louis City has been primarily African American while South St. Louis City has been primarily White. Since the mid-1990s, an estimated 30,000 - 40,000 Bosnian immigrants have settled in the St. Louis metropolitan area, primarily concentrated in the Bevo neighborhood of south St. Louis and adjacent parts of St. Louis County.

There are 147,076 households, out of which 25.4% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 26.2% were married couples living together, 21.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 47.7% were non-families. 40.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 3.19.

In the city the population was spread out with 25.7% under the age of 18, 10.6% from 18 to 24, 30.9% from 25 to 44, 19.1% from 45 to 64, and 13.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 88.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.2 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $29,156, and the median income for a family was $32,585. Males had a median income of $31,106 versus $26,987 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,108.

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Cuisine

Anheuser-Busch beers

Schlafly beers

Gooey butter cake

Missouri wine

Toasted ravioli

St. Louis-style barbecue, often featuring spare ribs and thin, tangy tomato-based barbecue sauce

Slingers

Provel cheese

St. Louis-style thin pizza, as typified by regional chain Imo's Pizza

Ted Drewes Frozen Custard

Vess soda

St. Paul sandwich

Fitz's

Pork steak

Mayfair salad dressing, created at the former Mayfair Hotel in St. Louis

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Museums and other points of interest

City MuseumThere are several museums and attractions in the city. The City Museum offers a variety of interesting exhibits, including several large caves and a huge outdoor playground. It also serves as a meeting point for St. Louis' young arts scene. The Eugene Field House, located in downtown St. Louis, is a museum dedicated to the distinguished children's author. The Missouri History Museum presents exhibits and programs on a variety of topics including the 1904 World's Fair, and a comprehensive exhibit on Lewis and Clark's voyage exploring the Louisiana Purchase.

The Fox Theatre, originally one of many movie theatres along Grand Boulevard, is now a newly restored theatre featuring a Byzantine facade and Oriental decor. The Fox Theatre presents a Broadway Series in addition to concerts.

Cathedral Basilica of St. Louis.

View of the Arch from the Old Cathedral.There are several notable churches in the city, including the Cathedral Basilica of St. Louis (New Cathedral), a large Roman Catholic cathedral designed in the Byzantine and Romanesque styles. The interior is decorated with lovely mosaics, the largest mosaic collection in the world. The Basilica of St. Louis, King of France (1834), also known as the "Old Cathedral," is the oldest Roman Catholic cathedral west of the Mississippi River. The Old Cathedral is located adjacent to the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial.

The Hill is an historically Italian neighborhood where many of the area's best Italian restaurants can be found. The Hill was the home of Yogi Berra and many other noted baseball players. The International Bowling Museum and Hall of Fame and St. Louis Cardinals Hall of Fame Museum is also located near Busch Stadium in downtown St. Louis.

Laclede's Landing, located on the Mississippi Riverfront directly north of the historic Eads Bridge, is popular for its restaurants and nightclubs. St. Louis also possesses several distinct examples of 18th and 19th century architecture, such as the Soulard Market district (1779-1842), the Chatillon-de Menil House (1848), the Bellefontaine Cemetery (1850), the Robert G. Campbell House (1852), the Old Courthouse (1845-62), the original Anheuser-Busch Brewery (1860), and two of Louis Sullivan's early skyscrapers, the Wainwright Building (1890-91) and the Union Trust Building.

The Lemp Mansion, home of the fated Lemp family which had multiple suicides, is considered one of the most haunted places in the nation.

There are also several notable museums in surrounding cities. The Delmar Loop, in University City, just west of the St. Louis city line, is a popular entertainment, cultural and restaurant district. The Butterfly House is located in western St. Louis County.

The Museum of Transportation is in Kirkwood, a suburb in southwestern St. Louis County. Many large steam locomotives, classic cars, and even a boat are some of the spectacles.

Six Flags St. Louis, known as "Six Flags over Mid-America" when it opened in 1971, is an amusem*nt park in Eureka, Missouri, in far west St. Louis County. It is one of the original Six Flags.

Saint Charles is the seat of St. Charles County and first capital of the state of Missouri.

Cahokia Mounds, located 8 miles east of St. Louis near Collinsville, Illinois, holds the ruins of a city of the ancient Mississippian aboriginal culture. Similar mounds within St. Louis, used as construction fill in the 1800s, gave the city one of its nicknames, "Mound City".

Magic House, a children's hands-on exploration museum, and Worldways Children's Museum, an international children's cultural museum, are both in Kirkwood.

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Media

The St. Louis Post-Dispatch is the region's major daily newspaper. Founded by Joseph Pulitzer in the 1800s, the paper was owned by Pulitzer Publishing until 2005, when the company was acquired by Lee Enterprises. The company also owns the Suburban Journals, a collection of local newspapers. The daily Belleville News Democrat, published in Belleville, Illinois, serves many Illinois communities in the St. Louis Metro Area.

The St. Louis Business Journal, published weekly on Fridays, covers the region's business news.

In 1900, St. Louis had at least five daily newspapers: the St. Louis Globe-Democrat and the St. Louis Republic in the morning, and the Post-Dispatch and Star-Chronicle in the afternoon, as well as the German-language Westlische Post. One by one, these papers folded or consolidated. The Post-Dispatch bought out its remaining afternoon competitor, the Star-Times, in 1951. Until the mid-1980s, the morning Globe-Democrat, which was editorially more conservative than the Post-Dispatch, served as the Post's main rival. Although the Post-Dispatch and the Globe-Democrat maintained a joint operating agreement for years, the Globe-Democrat folded shortly after the Post-Dispatch switched from afternoon to morning publication.

The city's main weekly newpspaper is the Suburban Journal and the primary alternative weekly publication is the Riverfront Times. A variety of glossy monthly and quarterly publications cover topics such as local history, cuisine, and lifestyles. St. Louis is also home to the nation's last remaining metropolitan journalism review, the St. Louis Journalism Review, based at Webster University in the suburb of Webster Groves.

The St. Louis metro area is served by a wide variety of local television stations, and is the fourteenth largest designated market area (DMA) in the U. S., with 1,522,380 homes (1.51% of the total U.S.). The major network television affiliates are KMOV 4 (CBS), KDNL 30 (ABC), KSDK 5 (NBC), KTVI 2 (FOX), KETC 9 (PBS), KPLR 11 (WB), and WRBU 46 (UPN). In September of 2006, KPLR will become the St. Louis Tribune Broadcasting O&O station for the new CW Television Network, a joint venture between CBS Corporation and Time Warner; and at about the same time WRBU will become an affiliate of News Corporation's My Network TV.

The region's radio airwaves offer a variety of locally produced programming. KMOX (1120 AM), which pioneered the call-in talk radio format in the 1960s, retains significant regional influence due to its 50,000-watt clear-channel signal and an unusually active newsroom operation. Public radio station KWMU (90.7 FM), an NPR affiliate, also provides extensive, locally produced programming treating social issues, politics, and the arts. St. Louis is one of only a handful of U. S. cities to have its own independent community radio station, KDHX (88.1 FM), which features a wide range of music and talk from local residents. Washington University in St. Louis' college radio station, KWUR (90.3 FM), also provides community broadcasting and an eclectic mix of underground music, although with an effective radiated power of only ten watts, it is only heard on the campus and in the immediately adjacent neighborhoods.

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Music

St. Louis is the home of the world-renowned Saint Louis Symphony Orchestra which was founded in St. Louis in 1880--the second oldest orchestra in the nation--and which has over the years been honored with six Grammy Awards and fifty-six nominations. Historic Powell Symphony Hall on North Grand Boulevard has been the permanent home of the Saint Louis Symphony Orchestra since 1968. Leonard Slatkin has served as one of the orchestra's previous conductors; presently he conducts the National Symphony Orchestra in Washington, DC.

The Opera Theatre of Saint Louis is an annual summer festival of opera performed in English, originally co-founded by Richard Gaddes in 1968; he is now the director of the Santa Fe Opera. Union Avenue Opera Theatre, formed in the early 1990s, is a smaller but thriving company that performs opera in the original languages.

St. Louis has long been associated with great ragtime, jazz and blues music. Early rock and roll singer/guitarist Chuck Berry is a native St. Louisan and continues to perform there several times a year at Blueberry Hill. Soul music artists Ike Turner and Tina Turner and jazz innovator Miles Davis began their careers in nearby East St. Louis, Illinois. St. Louis has also been a popular stop along the infamous Chitlin Circuit.

Popular Music and entertainment in St. Louis peaked in the 1960s due to the popularity of Gaslight Square, a thriving local nightclub district that attracted nationally known musicians and performers. This area was all but extinct by the early 1970s and today is the site of a new housing development.

In the 1990s, the metro area produced several prominent alt-country artists, including Uncle Tupelo — a Belleville, Illinois trio often considered the originators of the style, whose members went on to found Wilco and Son Volt in 1994 — and The Bottle Rockets. More recently, the rise of Nelly, The Saint Lunatics, Flame (of Cross Movement Records) Murphy Lee, Chingy, J-Kwon, Ebony Eyez, Jibbs, and other musicians have made it one of the centers of rap and hip-hop, often mentioned side-by-side with New York City, Atlanta, Los Angeles, Chicago, and Detroit.

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Parks and outdoor attractions

Old footbridge in Forest Park.The city operates 105 parks that serve as gathering spots for neighbors to meet, and contains playgrounds, areas for summer concerts, picnics, baseball games, tennis courts, and lakes.

Forest Park, located on the western edge of the central corridor of the City of St. Louis, is one of the largest urban parks in the world, outsizing Central Park in New York City by 500 acres. It offers many of St. Louis' most popular attractions: the Saint Louis Zoological Park, the Municipal Theatre (also known as, The Muny, the largest and oldest outdoor musical theatre in the United States), the St. Louis Science Center (with its architecturally distinctive McDonnell Planetarium), the Saint Louis Art Museum, the Missouri History Museum, several lakes, and scenic, open areas. Forest Park completed a multimillion dollar renovation in 2004 for the centennial of the St. Louis World's Fair. The Zoo, Art Museum, and Science Center are all world-class institutions. The Zoo-Museum Tax District provides them operating funds, so general admission to them, as well as to the History Museum, is free.

The Missouri Botanical Garden, also known as Shaw's Garden, is one of the world's leading botanical research centers. It possesses a beautiful collection of flowering plants, shrubs, and trees, and includes the Japanese Garden, which features a lake filled with koi and gravel designs; the woodsy English Garden; the Home Gardening Center; a rose garden; the Climatron; a children's garden and playground; and many other scenic gardens. Immediately south of the Missouri Botanical Garden is Tower Grove Park, a gift to the City by Henry Shaw.

The Jefferson National Expansion Memorial is a 90.96 acre national park located on the downtown riverfront where the city was first founded in 1764, and commemorates the westward growth of the United States between 1803 and 1890. The centerpiece of the park is the stainless steel Gateway Arch, which is the most recognizable structure in the city. It was designed by noted architect Eero Saarinen and completed on October 28, 1965. At 630 feet (192 m), it is the tallest manmade monument in the United States. Located below the Arch is the Museum of Westward Expansion, which contains an extensive collection of artifacts and details the story of the thousands of people who lived in and settled the American West during the nineteenth century. Nearby and also part of the memorial is the historic Old Courthouse, one of the oldest standing buildings in St. Louis. Begun in 1839, it was here that the first two trials of the Dred Scott case were held in 1847 and 1850. This park is also the location of the annual July 4th festival, Fair Saint Louis.

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Sports

Club Sport League Venue

St. Louis Cardinals Major League Baseball National League Busch Stadium

St. Louis Rams Football National Football League : NFC Edward Jones Dome

St. Louis Blues Ice Hockey National Hockey League Scottrade Center

St. Louis Steamers Soccer Major Indoor Soccer League Scottrade Center

St. Louis Stunners Basketball American Basketball Association TBA

River City Rage Arena Football National Indoor Football League Scottrade Center

St. Louis Aces Tennis World TeamTennis Pro League Dwight Davis Memorial Tennis Center

St. Louis Bombers RFC Rugby Rugby Super League, MRFU SportPort

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Enthusiastic and knowledgeable fans give the city a reputation as "a top-notch sports town" and "Baseball City USA." The Sporting News rated St. Louis the nation's "Best Sports City." The St. Louis Cardinals, one of the oldest franchises in Major League Baseball, have won 9 World Championships, second only to the New York Yankees.

A view of the new Busch Stadium from the top of the Gateway Arch.The city of St. Louis has earned 12 professional sports championships. As mentioned earlier, the St. Louis Cardinals have won 9 World Series Championships with one of the championships played against the old cross-city rival the St. Louis Browns in 1944. The St. Louis Rams have won one Super Bowl Championship (Super Bowl XXIV in January 2000), and the St. Louis Hawks (who later moved to Atlanta) gave the city its lone NBA Championship (1958). On top of that, the St. Louis Blues hold the record for most consecutive playoff appearances in all of sports with 26 straight. The Blues have also made 3 trips to the Stanley Cup Finals but have never won the championship.

St. Louis was also home to two prominent twentieth-century boxers, brothers Leon and Michael Spinks. The two are the only brothers in boxing history to have both captured the Heavyweight boxing title. Leon's son Cory Spinks has also held a world title.

St. Louis is notable as arguably the biggest hotbed of Soccer in the United States. The Saint Louis University soccer team is amongst the elite of NCAA soccer, and several American soccer stars, such as Taylor Twellman, Mike Sorber, and Pat Noonan hail from St. Louis. Despite soccer's popularity in the area, St. Louis is yet to gain a Major League Soccer franchise, but plans are currently in the works. Currently, the highest ranking soccer club in St. Louis is the St. Louis Steamers.

Professional Wrestling also has firm roots in St. Louis. Essentially, three men combined to make the Mound City not only the "Gateway to the West," but the unofficial capital of professional wrestling. The three men were Tom Packs, Sam Muchnick, and Lou Thesz. Wrestling at the Chase was a popular weekly event for hundreds of thousands of fans for several decades, both live and on television. St. Louis is also home to former World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE) World Champion and currently one of the sport's top performers, Randy Orton.

While high school sports are not as big in St. Louis as they are in such places as Texas, there are a large amount of well-known local rivalries: SLUH and CBC have played each other for over 75 years in many sports, the annual "Turkey Day Game" between Webster and Kirkwood draws 15,000 supporters, and high school soccer games are often well attended, drawing upwards of 5,000 people to the bigger games. Recently, a boom in high school hockey has occurred, mostly among students drawn to the sport's freewheeling atmosphere.

In 2006, the College Cup will be played at Hermann Stadium on the campus of Saint Louis University.

The Scottrade Center will host the 2007 Frozen Four college ice hockey tournament on April 5 and April 7, 2007. The Scottrade Center also hosts the annual "Braggin' Rights" game, a men's college basketball rivalry game between the universities of Illinois and Missouri. St. Louis is roughly equidistant from the two campuses.

In March 2005, the Edward Jones Dome in St. Louis hosted the final two rounds of the NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship, also known as the Final Four. In April 2009, the Edward Jones Dome will host the NCAA Women's Division I Basketball Championship Final Four.

Gateway International Raceway hosts NHRA Drag Racing and NASCAR racing events 5 miles east of the city in Madison, Illinois.

There are also several minor league teams in the area. The Gateway Grizzlies (Minor League Baseball) of the Frontier League, which plays at GMC Stadium across the river in Sauget, Illinois. The River City Rascals (Minor League Baseball) also of the Frontier League, play at T.R. Hughes Stadium in nearby O'Fallon, Missouri. The Missouri River Otters (United Hockey League) play at Family Arena in St. Charles, Missouri. The River City Rage are an Arena Football team that play in the National Indoor Football League at Family Arena. The St. Louis Flight are a basketball team that play in the newly reincarnated American Basketball Association, also at Family Arena.

St. Louis is also one of the few cities in the country that plays host to local Corkball leagues. Corkball is a "mini-baseball" game featuring a 1.6 oz. ball and bat with a barrel that measures just 1.5". Corkball is St. Louis' classic baseball game. Originally played on the streets and alleys of St. Louis in the early 1900s, today the game has leagues formed around the country as a result of St. Louis servicemen introducing the game to their buddies during World War II and the Korean conflict. It has many of the features of baseball, yet can be played in a very small area because there is no base-running.

Nearby Town and Country is home to the Bellerive Country Club, which has hosted several golf major championships.

The [St. Louis Bombers Rugby Football Club] arrived on the St. Louis rugby scene in the spring of 1962. Original founding members of the club included Frank Hauff, Gene Gladstone, Tom Jones, Cliff Schlereth, Bob Meyer, and John Himmelman, who the Black side MVP award is named after. The Bombers were a result of a merger between "The Old Blacks" and the "Sisler-Hummel" rugby clubs. The Bombers immediately took control of St. Louis rugby, winning the Missouri Rugby Union Championship in their first two years and five out of their first six. From 1964 to 1965 the Bombers were undefeated and shut out all league opponents. A commitment to compete against the top clubs from across the country, and a strong winning record versus these clubs, keep the Bombers rated as one of the top Rugby Clubs in America. Today the Bombers take pride in playing great defense and have the ability to produce the ball quickly. The bottom line is the Bombers can score fast and often, making for an exciting brand of rugby. The Bombers are consistently represented on the USA Rugby Western Select Territorial Team and always have players competing for coveted spots on the USA Eagles National Team. • 11 - 1st Division Missouri RFU Championships • 1999 Major League Rugby USA National Champions • 2001 & 2003 USA Rugby Western Club Champions • 2001 & 2003 USA Rugby "Elite Eight" appearance

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Government

The City of St. Louis has a mayor-council type government, with the legislative authority vested in a Board of Aldermen and the mayor having primary executive authority. The Board of Aldermen is made up of 28 members (one elected from each of the city's wards) plus a board president who is elected city-wide. Unlike many other cities, the mayor shares some executive authority with 9 other independent citywide elected officials, including a treasurer, comptroller, and collector of revenue. These officials have significant influence. By custom and tradition the individual aldermen have a great deal of influence over decisions impacting the ward they represent on matters ranging from zoning changes, to street resurfacing.

Municipal elections in St. Louis city are held in odd numbered years, with the primary elections in March and the general election in April. The mayor is elected in odd numbered years following the United States Presidential Election, as are the aldermen representing odd-numbered wards. The President of the Board of Aldermen and the aldermen from even-numbered wards are elected in the off-years. The Democratic Party has dominated St. Louis city politics for decades. The city has not had a Republican mayor since the 1940s and the last time a Republican was elected to another city-wide office was in the 1970s. As of 2006, 27 of the city's 28 Aldermen are Democrats.

Although St. Louis City and County separated in 1876, some mechanisms have been put in place for joint funding management and funding of regional assets. The St. Louis Zoo-Museum district collects property taxes from residents of both St. Louis City and County and the funds are used to support cultural instituions including the St. Louis Zoo, St. Louis Art Museum and the Missouri Botanical Gardens. Similarly, the Metropolitan Sewer District provides sanitary and storm sewer service to the city and much of St. Louis County. The Bi-State Development Agency (now known as Metro) runs the region's Metrolink light rail system and bus system.

The City of St. Louis is split roughly in half north to south by Missouri's first and third U.S. Congressional districts. Each district also includes a significant portion of St. Louis County. The City of St. Louis includes all of 9 Missouri House of Representatives districts and a portion of two others. Two Missouri State Senate districts are entirely within the city's boundaries and a third district is split between St. Louis City and County.

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Economy

Main article: Economy of St. Louis, Missouri

St. Louis punches above its weight as a center for corporate headquarters. Beer commercials have made the city well known as the home of Anheuser-Busch Breweries. Three local brokerages, A.G. Edwards, Stifel Nicolaus, and Edward Jones, as well as online brokerage firm Scottrade, have grown into dominant players on the national financial landscape. It is also the site for the headquarters of Energizer, the battery company. Neighboring suburbs host Monsanto, formerly a chemical company and now a leader in genetically modified crops, and Solutia, the former Monsanto chemical division that was spun off as a separate company in 1997. Express Scripts, a pharmaceutical benefits management firm, has its corporate headquarters in the suburbs of St. Louis and recently announced plans to construct its new headquarters near the campus of the University of Missouri-St. Louis. Hardee's corporate headquarters lies in the metro area. Enterprise Rent-A-Car is headquartered in Clayton. Emerson Electric is headquartered in the north side of St. Louis. Charter Communications, the nation's fourth largest broadband communications company, is headquartered in the St. Louis suburb of Town and Country.

In recent years, however, several longtime corporate pillars have left St. Louis. St. Louis was the corporate headquarters of McDonnell-Douglas prior to its 1997 merger with Boeing. Upon the merger, the area became the headquarters for Boeing's $27 billion-per-year Integrated Defense Systems division and its company-wide Phantom Works R&D operation. Locally, Boeing manufactures the F/A-18 Super Hornet and JDAM smart bombs, and has developed — at times secretly — several unmanned combat air vehicles (UCAVs). However, when Boeing relocated its corporate headquarters from Seattle, Washington in 2001, it moved to Chicago, Illinois — St. Louis was not one of the final candidates.Mallinckrodt headquatered in the St. Louis region for over 130 years was pruchased by Tyco International in 2000. Many of the former Mallinckrodt facilities are still in operation by Tyco in the St. Louis suburb of Hazelwood, Missouri.

Southwestern Bell Company (SBC), now AT&T, relocated to San Antonio in 1993, and military contractor General Dynamics (moved to Washington, D.C.). All major St. Louis banks have been purchased by out-of-town banks. The city retains a Federal Reserve Bank. In the Retail industry The May Department Stores Company, which owned Famous-Barr as well the legendary Marshall Field's, was purchased Federated Department Stores in 2005.

St. Louis was the corporate headquarters for animal feed and human-food maker Ralston Purina. After divesting all of its businesses except the pet food division, Nestle S.A., the world's largest food company acquired it in 2001. Several of the divested business still remain in St. Louis including Energizer, Ralcorp and Protein Technologies, Inc. n/k/a Solae. Trans World Airlines (acquired by American Airlines, which then dismantled TWA's St. Louis hub), telecommunications

St. Louis remains home to railway car plants; two DaimlerChrysler plants in the nearby suburb of Fenton, where minivans and pickup trucks are built; a General Motors plant in suburban Wentzville; and a Ford Motor Company plant in Hazelwood, where SUVs are built.

The region has built up a formidable health care industry. This is dominated by BJC HealthCare, which operates Barnes-Jewish Hospital and St. Louis Children's Hospital, plus eleven others. BJC benefits from a symbiotic relationship with Washington University in St. Louis' School of Medicine, which is a major center of medical research. Other major players include SSM Health Care, St. John's Mercy, and the Tenet Healthcare Corporation chain. In addition there is Saint Louis University School of Medicine which is a leader in several areas of medical research and works with hospitals including Cardinal Glennon Children's Hospital and Saint Louis University Hospital. St. Louis is also home to two companies that produce radiation therapy planning software, CMS, Inc. and Multidata Systems International.

Although local housing costs have risen in recent years, they are still significantly below the national average, and are a revelation to new arrivals from the coasts. From the mid-1990s onward, the City of St. Louis itself has seen a major surge in housing rehabilitation as well as new construction on cleared sites. As a rule, other costs of living also are at or below the national average. Wages tend to reflect these facts, likewise being at or slightly below the average.

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Education

Main article: Education of St. Louis, Missouri

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Public education

Within the city proper, the 168-year-old St. Louis public school district [3] controls the 92 schools in the public school system. With over 38,000 students, the district is the largest in the state of Missouri and the 108th largest in the nation. The district has recently come under fire for the firing of superintendent Dr. Creg E. Williams (July 2006). Dr. Diana Bourisaw was hired in July 2006 as his replacement. The district is currently aggressively pushing ahead with its 2011 initiative, which calls for improved graduation rates, higher test scores, and stronger student attendance. Many smaller public districts are defined throughout the wider St. Louis area. The MAP, or Missouri Assessment Program, is a system of standardized tests which students take yearly; not so much a measure of students' individual aptitude as an overall assessment of their schools and districts, scores are used as indicators of the institutions' efficiency, and many factors, especially distribution of public funds, are determined based on student performance.

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Private education

St. Louis is known for its abundance of private Catholic high schools, the majority of which are in the County (see St. Louis County High Schools). However, there are a few in the bounds of the city proper, including St. Elizabeth Academy, Rosati Kain High School, Saint Louis University High School, and St. Mary's High School. The city also has a number of archdiocesean high schools as well.

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Colleges and universities

For a complete list of colleges and universities in both St. Louis City and St. Louis County, see Colleges and Universities of St. Louis, Missouri

Brookings Hall; the most recognized building on the Washington University campus

DuBourg Hall serves as the administration building for St. Louis University.The St. Louis metropolitan region contains a vibrant and energetic college student population. With almost 10% of its population enrolled in an institution of higher education, St. Louis has a plethora of institutions of higher learning. It is home to the prestigious Washington University, an internationally recognized private research university ranked 12th in the nation by U.S. News and World Report and its endowment ranked as the seventh largest university endowment in the nation at $4,383,295,000 as of 2005. St. Louis also holds a unique place in the establishment of American colleges and universities. The oldest university west of the Mississippi River, Saint Louis University, was founded in 1818. The St. Louis metropolitan area is also home to at least 26 other institutions of higher learning:

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Medicine

Because of its colleges, hospitals, and companies like Monsanto, St. Louis is respected as a center of medicine and biotechnology. Barnes-Jewish Hospital, in conjunction with Washington University's School of Medicine, is the fifth largest in the world, while Washington University's Medical School consistently ranks in the top 5 nationally. Washington University Medical School and Barnes-Jewish Health Care operate the new and well-respected Siteman Cancer Center. Saint Louis University Medical School awarded the first medical degree west of the Mississippi River; it operates the Saint Louis University Hospital and SSM Cardinal Glennon Children's Hospital, as well as a cancer center and a bioethics institute.

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Transportation

Main article: Transportation of St. Louis, Missouri

Interstate 70 in downtown St. LouisLike most American cities, the main method of transportation is the automobile. Use of the automobile is supported by the existence of many limited-access interstate highways (I-70, I-55, I-44, I-64, I-255, I-170, and I-270), as well as numerous state and county highways.

Lambert-St. Louis International Airport is located in northwest St. Louis County, but is owned and operated by the city of St. Louis. American Airlines and Southwest Airlines have the greatest number of flights serving the airport. MidAmerica St. Louis Airport is located well east of the city in Illinois adjacent to Scott Air Force Base. Contructed as a reliever airport to Lambert, it has failed to attract any major airlines, primarily due to its distance from downtown and low population in its immediate vicinity. Spirit of Saint Louis Airport, located in nearby Chesterfield, Missouri is the area's general aviation airport.

Mass transit is provided in two forms, both of which are controlled by Metro St. Louis (formerly known as the Bi-State Development Agency): the city bus system and Metrolink, a light-rail train system that connects the airport to downtown and the Metro East (extending as far east as Scott Air Force Base near Shiloh, Illinois) and in West County into Clayton, the county seat for St. Louis County, and to South County.

Passenger train service is also available through a new Amtrak station that opened in December, 2004 (1 and 2). This station is a precursor of the upcoming Multi-Modal (transportation) Station, the ground-breaking for which is scheduled for March 30, 2006 (see 3 and 4). Other permanent train stations exist in the suburb of Kirkwood and nearby Alton, Illinois.

St. Louis once had a moderately extensive streetcar system which ended in 1966. The Metrolink expansion mirrors the original pathways. A movement is afoot to reinstate limited trolley service. 5

St. Louis is also the largest city between Chicago, Illinois and Los Angeles, California on the famous, historic U.S. Route 66.

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Crime and social issues

Main article: Crime and social issues of St. Louis, Missouri

Statistical data for the city of St. Louis are often skewed because the city is an independent city, separate and autonomous from its suburbs in St. Louis County and beyond. Thus, rankings which compare metropolitan statistical areas are a more accurate indicator of the region's health and stability, and they better indicate the relative safety of the St. Louis MSA. In fact, indicative of St. Louis' stability and safety was the fact that there was not a single incident of looting reported during a July, 2006 power outage which left nearly a million residents without power for a week due to what was considered a "once in a century" severe thunderstorm, causing fallen trees and limbs throughout the MSA to down power lines.

For the past 25 years, St. Louis has a number of successful integrated neighborhoods in the "central corridor" stretching from Soulard, home of the nation's second largest annual Gras Festival and Pareade The National Historic District, [Lafayette Square near the Mississippi River and the Central West End near Forest Park. Overall, however, the city's African-American population is concentrated in north St. Louis city. While some north St. Louis neighborhoods such as Baden and Penrose are stable and have a large number of middle-class residents, many isolated, northside neighborhoods suffer from poverty, unemployment, crime and dilapidated housing. More recently, a number of near southside neighborhoods, especially around Tower Grove Park, have also successfully integrated. These areas have seen an influx of residents of various ethnicities, including Vietnamese and other immigrant groups. Since the upheavals in the Balkans, many Bosnian refugees have been settled in south St. Louis City, particularly in the Bevo neighborhood. They have been responsible for an upturn in the economic situation there as they have opened stores and restaurants and other businesses. Many of the suburbs in north St. Louis County became more integrated during the 1990's; however, the suburbs of South St. Louis County and the wealthier suburbs of West St. Louis county are primarily European-American. Of the African-American residents in the City, about half live north of Delmar Boulevard, the traditional boundary for "North St. Louis."

The St. Louis area has made tremendous strides in remedying pollution compared to other MSAs. The state of Missouri requires gasoline stations in the metro area to sell special, reformulated gasoline. Most cars owned by residents of St. Louis and the counties of St. Louis, St. Charles, Jefferson, and Franklin must pass an automobile pollution test every other year.

As of July 1, 2005, the city of St. Louis extended healthcare benefits to the domestic partners of all city employees, including same-sex partners and others living in committed but unmarried relationships, as well as children of such families.

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Sister cities

St. Louis has eleven sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International:

- Bologna (Italy)

- Galway (Ireland)

- Bogor (Indonesia)

- Georgetown (Guyana)

- Lyon (France)

- Nanjing (People's Republic of China)

- Saint-Louis (Senegal)

- Samara (Russia)

- Stuttgart (Germany)

- Suwa (Japan)

- Szczecin (Poland)

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See also

East St. Louis, Illinois

Fair Saint Louis

Great Flood of 1993

List of famous people from St. Louis

List of Mayors of St. Louis

U.S. Route 66

Metro-East

Caves of St. Louis

Other uses of the name Saint Louis

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External links

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Capital Jefferson City

Regions Bootheel | Little Dixie | St. Francois Mountains | Ozark Plateau | Northern Plains | Missouri Rhineland | Lincoln Hills | Lead Belt | Platte Purchase | Dissected Till Plains | Osage Plains | Mississippi Alluvial Plain

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Cities Kansas City | St. Louis | Springfield | Independence | Columbia | Lee's Summit | St. Joseph | O'Fallon | St. Charles | St. Peters | Florissant | Blue Springs | Chesterfield | Joplin | University City | Jefferson City | Cape Girardeau | Wildwood | Ballwin | Raytown | Liberty | Kirkwood | Gladstone | Hazelwood | Maryland Heights | Belton

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The City of St. Louis

History | Geography | People and Culture | Economy | Education | Colleges and Universities | Transportation | Crime and Social Issues | Neighborhoods | Metopolitan area

Metropolitan area of St. Louis

Central City: St. Louis

Largest cities (over 20,000 in 2000): Alton • Belleville • Ballwin • Chesterfield • East St. Louis • Florissant • Granite City • Oakville • University City • Mehlville • Kirkwood • Hazelwood • Maryland Heights • Webster Groves • Ferguson •Spanish Lake •O'Fallon • Edwardsville • Affton • St. Charles • St. Peters

Largest towns and villages (over 10,000 in 2000): Manchester • Lemay • Overland • Concord • Cahokia • Godfrey • Fairview Heights • Wood River • Swansea • Glen Carbon • Arnold • Washington • Lake St. Louis • Creve Coeur • Bridgeton • Jeenings • St. Ann • Clayton • Missouri • Bellefontaine • Town and Country • Berkeley

Counties: St. Louis County • St. Charles • Jefferson • Franklin • Warren • Madison • St. Clair • Clinton • Monroe

Summer Olympic Games host cities[ Hide ]

1896: Athens • 1900: Paris • 1904: St. Louis • 1908: London • 1912: Stockholm • 1920: Antwerp • 1924: Paris • 1928: Amsterdam • 1932: Los Angeles • 1936: Berlin • 1948: London • 1952: Helsinki • 1956: Melbourne • 1960: Rome • 1964: Tokyo • 1968: Mexico City • 1972: Munich • 1976: Montreal • 1980: Moscow • 1984: Los Angeles • 1988: Seoul • 1992: Barcelona • 1996: Atlanta • 2000: Sydney • 2004: Athens • 2008: Beijing • 2012: London

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Louis%2C_Missouri"

Categories: Host cities of the Summer Olympic Games | 1764 establishments | Cities in Missouri | Cities on the Mississippi River | Communities on U.S. Route 66 | Independent cities in the United States | St. Louis County, Missouri | St. Louis, Missouri | Twin cities

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Atlanta is the capital and most populous city of the state of Georgia in the United States. It is the county seat of Fulton County, although a portion of the city (the 1909 annexation) extends into DeKalb County. According to the July 2005 census estimate, the city has a population of 470,688 and a metropolitan population of 4,917,717, making it the 35th largest city and 9th largest metropolitan area in the United States. As of July 1, 2005, Atlanta's combined statistical area (CSA) is estimated to have a population of 5,249,121. Atlanta is the largest of three principal cities, both by population and geographical area, of and included in the Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Marietta, Georgia Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is included in the Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Gainesville, Georgia-Alabama (part) Combined Statistical Area. Atlanta is encompassed by Interstate 285, locally known as the Perimeter, which has come to delineate the interior of the city from the surrounding suburbs. As a result, terms such as ITP (Inside The Perimeter) and OTP (Outside The Perimeter) have arisen to describe area neighborhoods, residents, and businesses. The Perimeter plays a social and geographical role similar to that of Interstate 495 (Capital Beltway) around Washington, DC.

Post World War II, Atlanta has become considered the Gateway to the New South or Capital of the New South. Today, Atlanta is one of the most important economic centers in the Southern United States, and it is considered a Gamma world city. With a rich history and a large population, Atlanta has long served as a major cultural and economic center.

The city of Atlanta has undergone several major incarnations. Originally a "railroad boomtown" that became a focal point of the Civil War, Atlanta was largely destroyed in 1864 by Union general William T. Sherman. The city later emerged from the ashes (hence the city's symbol, the phoenix) to become the postwar capital of Georgia in 1868 and a symbol of the "New South." While Atlanta's business leaders focused on making Atlanta a Southern version of New York and Chicago, the city served as a dean of Southern culture, and was the setting for much of Margaret Mitchell's most famous novel Gone With the Wind. During the Civil Rights Movement, Atlanta stood apart from other Southern cities which supported segregation, and became known as the "City Too Busy to Hate." The city's progressive Civil Rights record made it increasingly popular with black people, and the black population formed a majority by 1972. This has led to African-Americans becoming the dominant political force in the city. Since 1974, all of the mayors of Atlanta have been African-American, in addition to the majority of the city's fire chiefs, police chiefs, and other high-profile government officials. "White flight" from the city in the 1970's and 1980's (the city's population dropped by more than 100,000 from 1970 to 1990) has been reversed, however, since 1990, and the black majority has dropped from 69% in 1980 to 61% in 2000. The city is becoming increasingly diverse, although it remains politically black, with a majority-white business class.

Common colloquialisms for the city include A Town, The A-T-L (derived from its IATA airport code), Hotlanta, and The A'. It is common for those unfamiliar with Atlanta to associate it with Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. The international airport is the busiest in the world in terms of passenger traffic, due, in part, to it being the major airline hub of Delta Air Lines.

Contents [hide]

1 History

2 Geography

3 Climate

4 Surrounding Cities

5 People and Culture

5.1 Demographics

5.2 Crime

5.3 Attractions, events, and recreation

5.4 Media

5.5 Music

5.6 Sports

5.7 Religion

6 Economy

7 Infrastructure

7.1 Government

7.2 Transportation

7.3 Education

7.3.1 Public schools

7.3.2 Private schools

7.3.3 Colleges and universities

8 Sister Cities

9 See also

10 References

11 Further reading

12 External links

[edit]

History

The region where Atlanta and its suburbs were built was originally Creek and Cherokee Native American territory. The Creek land in the eastern part of the metro area (including Decatur) was opened to white settlement in 1823. In 1835, leaders of the Cherokee nation ceded their land to the government in exchange for land out west under the Treaty of New Echota, an act that eventually led to the Trail of Tears. In 1836 the Georgia General Assembly voted to build the Western and Atlantic Railroad to provide a trade route to the Midwest, with the area around Atlanta--then called Terminus--serving as the terminal. The terminus was originally planned for Decatur, but its citizens did not want it. Besides Decatur, several other suburbs of Atlanta predate the city by several years, including Marietta and Lawrenceville, GA. Terminus grew as a railroad town; later it was renamed Marthasville after then-Governor Wilson Lumpkin's daughter Martha. Marthasville was renamed Atlanta in 1845 (a feminized version of Atlantic suggested by J. Edgar Thomson) and was incorporated as such in 1847.

A slave auction house on Whitehall St.In 1864, the city became the target of a major Union invasion (the subject of the 1939 film Gone with the Wind). The area now covered by Atlanta was the scene of several battles, including the Battle of Peachtree Creek, the Battle of Atlanta, and the Battle of Ezra Church. On September 1, 1864, Confederate General John Bell Hood evacuated Atlanta after a four-month siege mounted by Union General William Sherman and ordered all public buildings and possible union assets destroyed. The next day, mayor James Calhoun surrendered the city, and on September 7 Sherman ordered the civilian population to evacuate. His forces occupied the city for several months, and he then ordered Atlanta burned to the ground on November 11 in preparation for his punitive march south. After a plea by Father Thomas O'Reilly of Immaculate Conception Catholic Church, Sherman did not burn the city's churches or hospitals. The remaining war resources were then destroyed in the aftermath and in Sherman's March to the Sea. The fall of Atlanta was a critical point in the Civil War, giving the North more confidence, and (along with the Battle of Mobile Bay) leading to the re-election of Abraham Lincoln and the eventual surrender of the Confederacy.

After the war, Atlanta was gradually rebuilt and soon became the industrial and commercial center of the South. From 1867 until 1888, U.S. Army soldiers occupied McPherson Barracks (later renamed Fort McPherson) in southwest Atlanta to ensure Reconstruction era reforms. To help the newly freed slaves, the federal government set up a Freedmen's Bureau, which helped establish what is now Clark Atlanta University, one of several historically black colleges in Atlanta. In 1868, Atlanta became the fifth city to serve as the state capital. Henry W. Grady, the editor of the Atlanta Constitution, promoted the city to investors as a city of the "New South", by which he meant a diversification of the economy away from agriculture and a shift from the "Old South" attitudes of slavery and rebellion. As part of the effort to modernize the South, Grady and many others also supported the creation of the Georgia School of Technology (now the Georgia Institute of Technology), which was founded on the city's northern outskirts in 1885.

In 1907, Peachtree Street, the main street of Atlanta, was busy with streetcars and automobiles.As Atlanta grew, ethnic and racial tensions mounted. The Atlanta Race Riot of 1906 left at least 27 dead[1] and over seventy injured. In 1913, Leo Frank, a Jewish supervisor at an Atlanta factory, was put on trial for raping and murdering a thirteen-year old white employee. After doubts about Frank's guilt led his death sentence to be commuted in 1915, riots broke out in Atlanta and Frank was lynched.

In the 1930s, the Great Depression hit Atlanta. With the city government nearing bankruptcy, the Coca-Cola Company had to help bail out the city's deficit. The federal government stepped in to help Atlantans by establishing Techwood Homes, the nation's first federal housing project in 1935. With the entry of the United States into World War II, soldiers from around the Southeastern United States went through Atlanta to train and later be discharged at Fort McPherson. War-related manufacturing such as the Bell Aircraft factory in the suburb of Marietta helped boost the city's population and economy. Shortly after the war in 1946, the Communicable Disease Center, later called the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) was founded in Atlanta from the old Malaria Control in War Areas offices and staff.

In 1951, the city received the All-America City Award, due to its rapid growth and high standard of living in the southern U.S.

In the wake of the landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision Brown v. Board of Education, which helped usher in the Civil Rights Movement, racial tensions in Atlanta began to express themselves in acts of violence. For example, on October 12, 1958, a Reform Jewish temple on Peachtree Street was bombed. The "Confederate Underground" claimed responsibility. Many believed that Jews, especially those from the northeast, were advocates of the Civil Rights Movement.

In the 1960s, Atlanta was a major organizing center of the US Civil Rights Movement, with Dr. Martin Luther King and students from Atlanta's historically black colleges and universities playing major roles in the movement's leadership. On October 19, 1960, a sit-in at the lunch counters of several Atlanta department stores led to the arrest of Dr. King and several students, drawing attention from the national media and from presidential candidate John F. Kennedy. Despite this incident, Atlanta's political and business leaders fostered Atlanta's image as "the city too busy to hate". In 1961, Mayor Ivan Allen Jr. became one of the few Southern white mayors to support desegregation of Atlanta's public schools. While the city mostly avoided confrontation, small race riots did occur in 1965 and in 1968.

In 1990, the International Olympic Committee selected Atlanta as the site for the Centennial Olympic Games 1996 Summer Olympics. Following the announcement, Atlanta undertook several major construction projects to improve the city's parks, sports facilities, and transportation. Former Mayor Bill Campbell allowed many "tent cities" to be built, creating a carnival atmosphere around the games. Atlanta became the first American capital city to host the Olympics. The games themselves were a wonderful achievement in sports, but they were marred by numerous organizational inefficiencies as well as the Centennial Olympic Park bombing, which resulted in the death of two people and injured several others. Much later it was determined that the bombing was carried out by North Carolinian Eric Robert Rudolph as an anti-government and pro-life protest.

[edit]

Geography

Panoramic view of 2 of Atlanta's most prominent skyline's (left to right) Midtown & Downtown.According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 343.0 km² (132.4 mi²). 341.2 km² (131.8 mi²) of it is land and 1.8 km² (0.7 mi²) of it is water. The total area is 0.51% water.

At about 1050 feet or 320 meters above mean sea level (the airport is 1010 feet), Atlanta sits atop a ridge south of the Chattahoochee River. Amongst the 25 largest MSAs, Atlanta is the fourth-highest in elevation, slightly lower than Pittsburgh (the city itself is higher than downtown Pittsburgh, however) and Phoenix, but significantly lower than Denver (1 mile or 1,600 m).

According to folklore, its central avenue, Peachtree Street, runs through the center of the city on the Eastern Continental Divide. In actuality, the divide line enters Atlanta from the southwest, proceeding to downtown. From downtown, the divide line runs eastward along DeKalb Avenue and the CSX rail lines through Decatur. Rainwater that falls on the south and east side runs eventually into the Atlantic Ocean while rainwater on the north and west side of the divide runs into the Gulf of Mexico.

The latter is via the Chattahoochee River, part of the ACF River Basin, and from which Atlanta and many of its neighbors draw most of their water. Being at the far northwestern edge of the city, much of the river's natural habitat is still preserved, in part by the Chattahoochee River National Recreation Area. Downstream however, excessive water use during droughts and pollution during floods has been a source of contention and legal battles with neighboring states Alabama and Florida.

[edit]

Climate

A snowy scene in Piedmont Park during the winter storm of 2003.Atlanta has a humid subtropical climate, (Cfa) according to the Köppen classification, with hot, humid summers and mild winters by the standards of the U.S.

The summers are hot and humid, with afternoon highs peaking at about 90°F (32°C) in late July. Temperatures can also exceed 100°F (38°C) in a major heat wave. The highest temperature recorded in the city is 105°F (40.6°C), reached on July 13 and July 17, 1980.

January is the coldest month, with an average high of 52°F (11°C), and low of 34°F (1°C). An average year sees frost on 48 days; snowfall averages 2 inches (5 centimeters) annually. The heaviest single storm brought 10 inches on January 23, 1940.[2] The lowest temperature recorded in the city is -9°F (-22°C), reached on 13 February 1899, and it has reached below zero several times in the 1980s and 1990s. The frequent ice storms can cause more problems than snow; the most severe such storm may have occurred on January 7, 1973.[3] Also during winter, warm air can flow from the Gulf of Mexico, raising temperatures as high as 80°F (27°C).

Like the rest of the Southeastern U.S., Atlanta receives abundant rainfall, which is relatively evenly distributed throughout the year. Average annual rainfall is 50.5 inches (127 centimeters).[4][5]

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °F (°C) 52 (11) 57 (14) 65 (18) 73 (23) 80 (27) 87 (31) 89 (32) 88 (31) 82 (28) 73 (23) 63 (17) 55 (13) 72 (22)

Average low °F (°C) 34 (1) 37 (3) 45 (7) 50 (10) 59 (15) 66 (19) 72 (22) 70 (21) 64 (18) 54 (12) 45 (7) 36 (2) 52 (11)

Average rainfall: inches (millimeters) 5.03 (127.8) 4.68 (118.9) 5.38 (136.7) 3.62 (91.9) 3.95 (100.3) 3.63 (92.2) 5.12 (130.0) 3.63 (92.2) 4.09 (103.9) 3.11 (79.0) 4.10 (104.1) 3.82 (97.0) 50.16 (1274)

[edit]

Surrounding Cities

Some cities that surround Atlanta are:

Sandy Springs, Pop: 85,781

Roswell, Pop: 79,338

Marietta, Pop: 58,748

Smyrna, Pop: 40,999

Kennesaw, Pop: 30,522

East Point, Pop: 39,595

North Atlanta (unincorporated), Pop: 38,579

Redan (unincorporated), Pop: 33,841

Dunwoody (unincorporated), Pop: 32,808

Mableton (unincorporated), Pop: 29,733

Forest Park, pop. 21,447

College Park, Pop: 20,382

[edit]

People and Culture

[edit]

Demographics

Atlanta population

Year City

proper[6] Metro

area

1850 2,572

1860 9,554

1870 21,789

1880 37,409

1890 65,533

1900 89,872 419,375

1910 154,839 522,442

1920 200,616 622,283

1930 270,366 715,391

1940 302,288 820,579

1950 331,314 997,666

1960 487,455 1,312,474

1970 496,973 1,763,626

1980 425,022 2,233,324

1990 394,017 2,959,950

2000 416,474 4,112,198

2005 470,688 4,926,611

Thematic map of African Americans, the largest ethnic group in AtlantaThe census of 2000 states there are 416,474 people (470,688 in the July 2005 estimate), 168,147 households, and 83,232 families residing in the city. The population density is 1,221/km² (3,161/mi²). There are 186,925 housing units at an average density of 548/km² (1,419/mi²). The racial makeup of the city is 61.39% Black, 33.22% White,1.93% Asian, 0.18% Native American, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.99% from other races, and 1.24% from two or more races. 4.49% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race. The city has one of the largest gay populations in the nation; according to Census 2000 both DeKalb and Fulton counties are among the ten most heavily gay counties in America.

There are 168,147 households out of which 22.4% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 24.5% are married couples living together, 20.7% have a female householder with no husband present, and 50.5% are non-families. 38.5% of all households are made up of individuals and 8.3% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.30 and the average family size is 3.16.

In the city the population is spread out with 22.3% under the age of 18, 13.3% from 18 to 24, 35.2% from 25 to 44, 19.4% from 45 to 64, and 9.7% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 32 years. For every 100 females there are 98.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 97.6 males.

The median income for a household in the city is $51,482 and the median income for a family is $55,939. Males have a median income of $36,162 compared to $30,178 for females. The per capita income for the city is $29,772, and 24.4% of the population and 21.3% of families are below the poverty line. 38.8% of those under the age of 18 and 20.7% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.

In July 2006, several neighborhoods in South Fulton county voted to join the city of Atlanta, which would become effective Oct 30, 2006. If these applications for annexation are accepted, this could add another 17,000 or so residents to the city and increase the land area as well.

According to the Census Bureau's daytime population estimate,[7] over 250,000 more people are in Atlanta on any given workday, boosting the city's daytime population to 676,431. This is an increase of almost 60% over Atlanta's normal population total.

See also: population of Atlanta

[edit]

Crime

For several decades, Atlanta had been among the most violent cities in North America but in recent years the city has reduced violent crime considerably. According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation's annual Uniform Crime Report, Atlanta recorded 90 homicides in 2005, down from 111 in 2004.

However, in 2005 Atlanta received media attention for the high-profile Brian Nichols manhunt, who became internationally known as the "Courthouse Killer". In addition, broadcast media focused attention on a standoff involving a murder suspect (not an Atlanta resident) who perched himself on top of a construction crane for several days in the upscale Buckhead district.

[edit]

Attractions, events, and recreation

The Sweet Auburn district is preserved as the Martin Luther King, Jr. National Historic Site.

The Varsity has been an Atlanta landmark for over 75 years.

Atlanta's Piedmont Park is the city's largest park.Atlanta boasts a variety of museums on subjects ranging from history to fine arts, natural history, and beverages. Prominent among them are sites honoring Atlanta's participation in the civil rights movement. Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was born in the city, and his boyhood home on Auburn Avenue in the Sweet Auburn district is preserved as the Martin Luther King, Jr. National Historic Site. Meetings with other civil rights leaders, including Hosea Williams and current Congressman John Lewis, often happened at Paschal's, a diner and motor inn which was a favorite for "colored" people, banned from "white" restaurants in an era of racial segregation and intolerance. King's final resting place is in the tomb at the center of the reflecting pool at the King Center.

Other history museums and attractions include the Atlanta History Center; the Atlanta Cyclorama and Civil War Museum (a huge painting and diorama in-the-round, with a rotating central audience platform, that depicts the Battle of Atlanta in the Civil War); the Carter Center and Presidential Library; historic house museum Rhodes Hall; and the Margaret Mitchell House and Museum.

The arts are represented by several theaters and museums, including the Fox Theatre. The Woodruff Arts Center is home to the Alliance Theatre, Atlanta Symphony, High Museum of Art, and Atlanta College of Art. The Atlanta Contemporary Art Center is the city's home for challenging contemporary art and education geared toward working artists and collectors of art. Museums geared specifically towards children include the Fernbank Science Center and Imagine It! Atlanta's Children's Museum. The High Museum of Art is the city's major fine/visual arts venue, with a significant permanent collection and an assortment of traveling exhibitions. The Atlanta Opera, which was founded in 1979 by members of two struggling local companies, is arguably the most important opera company in the southeastern United States and enjoys a growing audience and international reputation.

Atlanta features the world's largest aquarium, the Georgia Aquarium, which officially opened to the public on November 23, 2005. The aquarium features over 100,000 specimens in tanks holding approximately eight million gallons of water. One unique museum is the World of Coca-Cola featuring the history of the world famous soft drink brand and its well-known advertising. Adjacent is Underground Atlanta, a historic shopping and entertainment complex situated under the streets of downtown Atlanta. In addition the Atlantic Station, a huge new urban renewal project on the northwestern edge of Midtown Atlanta, officially opened in October of 2005. While not a museum per se, The Varsity is the main branch of the long-lived fast food chain, featured as the world's largest drive-in restaurant.

The heart of the city's festivals is Piedmont Park. In 1887, a group of prominent Atlantans purchased 189 acres (0.76 km²) of farmland to build a horse racing track, later developed into the site of the Cotton States International Exposition of 1895. In 1904, the city council purchased the land for US$99,000, and today it is the largest park in metro Atlanta, with more than 2.5 million visitors each year. The grounds were part of the Battle of Peachtree Creek – a Confederate division occupied the northern edge on July 20, 1864 as part of the outer defense line against Sherman's approach. Next to the park is the Atlanta Botanical Garden. Zoo Atlanta, with a panda exhibit, is in Grant Park.

Just east of the city, Stone Mountain is the largest piece of exposed granite in the world. On its face are giant carvings of Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee, and Stonewall Jackson. It is also the site of impressive laser shows in the summer. A few miles west of Atlanta on I-20 is the Six Flags Over Georgia Theme Park, which opened near the city in 1967, and was the second theme park in the Six Flags chain.

Popular annual cultural events include:

Atlanta Dogwood Festival, a Spring arts and crafts festival at Piedmont Park.

Music Midtown - Three-day music festival in early summer. (Now on hiatus)

Screen on the Green - Outdoor classic movies in June in Piedmont Park.

Atlanta Gay Pride

Atlanta Jazz Festival – largest free jazz festival in the USA

Sweet Auburn SpringFest

Inman Park Festival

Virginia-Highlands Summerfest

Georgia Renaissance Festival

Greek Festival

[edit]

Media

Mayor of Atlanta: Shirley FranklinThe major daily newspaper in Atlanta is The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Other weekly papers include Creative Loafing and Atlanta Nation.

The Atlanta metro area is served by a wide variety of local television stations, and is the ninth largest designated market area (DMA) in the U.S. with 2,059,450 homes (1.88% of the total U.S.). All of the major networks have stations in the market, along with two PBS stations and some independent ones. There are also numerous local radio stations serving every genre of music, sports, and talk. See List of broadcast stations in Atlanta for a complete list of local TV and radio stations. The nationally syndicated Neal Boortz and Clark Howard shows are broadcast from Atlanta radio station AM 750 WSB.

Several cable television networks also operate from Atlanta, including TBS, CNN, Cartoon Network, Boomerang, and TNT. These stations are owned by Turner Broadcasting System (now a subsidiary of Time Warner). The Weather Channel (owned by Landmark Communications) also broadcasts from the Atlanta area.

Cumulus Media, Inc. engages in the acquisition, operation, and development of commercial radio stations in mid-size radio markets in the United States an is headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia. As of December 31, 2005, it owned and operated 307 radio stations in 61 mid-sized U.S. media markets; and a multimarket network of 5 radio stations in the English-speaking Caribbean; as well as provided sales and marketing services for 2 radio stations under local marketing agreement.

Nintendo's American Division has its distribution center based in Atlanta, the primary location from where imported games and products arrive to United States and are often inspected and shipped to stores nationwide.

See also: list of newspapers in Atlanta

[edit]

Music

Atlanta has a reputation as a highly musical city, especially well-known for hip-hop and R&B musicians. Jermaine Dupri's 2001 hip hop single "Welcome to Atlanta" (feat. Ludacris) declares Atlanta the "new Motown", referencing the city of Detroit, Michigan, which was known for its contributions to popular music. The Dirty South style of hip-hop emerged in part from Atlanta artists such as Outkast and Goodie Mob. More recently, rapper/producer Lil' Jon has been a driving force behind the party-oriented style known as crunk.

Record Producers L.A. Reid and Babyface founded LaFace Records in Atlanta in the late-1980s; the label has eventually become the home to multi-platinum selling artists such as Toni Braxton, TLC, OutKast, Goodie Mob, Monica, Usher and Ciara, many of whom are Atlantans themselves. It is also the home of So So Def Records, a label founded by Jermaine Dupri in the mid-1990s, that signed acts such as Da Brat, Jagged Edge, Xscape, Bow Wow, and Dem Franchise Boyz. The success of LaFace and SoSo Def led to Atlanta as an established scene for record labels such as LaFace parent company Arista Records to set up satellite offices. Atlanta is also home to multi-platinum rappers Ludacris and T.I., among others. Artists such as B5, Phife Dawg, and Brian Littrell of the Backstreet Boys have moved to the city and made it their home. Atlanta is also a well known place for producers and artists trying to get into the music business.

Atlanta has also produced rock and pop music singers, such as The Black Crowes, alternative metal band Sevendust, rock bands Collective Soul and Third Day, the folk-pop Indigo Girls, Butch Walker, and was a proving ground for Connecticut-born pop-rock-blues musician John Mayer. Mayer, as well as Indie.Arie and Shawn Mullins, all performed pre-fame at Eddie's Attic, an independent club in the intown suburb of Decatur. The "Open Mic Shootout" at Eddie's Attic consistently draws singer-songwriter talent from across the nation, and is held every Monday night.

Atlanta's classical music scene includes well-renowned ensembles such as the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra, Atlanta Opera, Atlanta Ballet, period-instrument ensemble New Trinity Baroque, Atlanta Boy Choir, and many others. Classical musicians include renowned conductors such as late Robert Shaw, Atlanta Symphony's Robert Spano, New Trinity Baroque's Predrag Gosta, and others.

The city has a well-known and active live music scene, though recently rapid gentrification and early venue closing times have hurt small clubs and other music venues. In the early 1980s, Atlanta was the home of a thriving new wave music scene featuring such bands as The Brains and The Producers, closely linked to the new wave scenes in Athens, Georgia and other college towns in the southeast.

[edit]

Sports

Turner FieldClub Sport League Venue

Atlanta Falcons American Football National Football League Georgia Dome

Atlanta Braves Baseball Major League Baseball, NL Turner Field

Atlanta Hawks Basketball National Basketball Association Philips Arena

Atlanta Rollergirls Roller Derby Women's Flat Track Derby Association All American Skating Center

Atlanta Silverbacks Soccer (Football) USL First Division Silverbacks Park

Atlanta Thrashers Ice Hockey National Hockey League Philips Arena

Georgia Force Arena Football Arena Football League Philips Arena

Atlanta Vision Basketball ABA:Blue Conference The Sampson's Center

Atlanta has a rich sports history, including the oldest on-campus Division I football stadium, Bobby Dodd Stadium, built in 1913 by the students of Georgia Tech. Atlanta also played host to the second intercollegiate football game in the South[citation needed], Auburn University vs. University of Georgia in 1892. This game is often considered the Oldest Rivalry in the South. Currently it hosts college football's annual Chick-fil-A Bowl and the Peachtree Road Race, the world’s largest 10 km race. Atlanta was the host city for the Centennial 1996 Summer Olympics. Centennial Olympic Park, built for 1996 Summer Olympics, sits adjacent to CNN Center and Philips Arena. It is now operated by the Georgia World Congress Center Authority.

The city is also host to four different major league sports. The Atlanta Braves baseball team has been the Major League Baseball franchise of Atlanta since 1966; the franchise was previously known as the Boston Braves (1912-1952), and the Milwaukee Braves (1953-1965). The team was founded in 1871 in Boston, Massachusetts as a National Association club, making it the oldest continuously operating sports franchise in North American sports. The Braves won the World Series in 1995 and had a recently ended unprecedented run of 14 straight divisional championships from 1991 to 2005. Before the Braves moved to Atlanta, the Atlanta Crackers were Atlanta's professional baseball team from 1901 until their last season in 1965. They won 17 league championships in the minor leagues. The Atlanta Black Crackers were Atlanta's ***** League team from around 1921 until 1949.

The Atlanta Falcons American football team plays at the Georgia Dome. They have been Atlanta's National Football League franchise since 1966. They have won the division title three times, and a conference championship once, only to go on to lose to the Denver Broncos in Super Bowl XXXIII. Super Bowl XXVIII and XXXIV were held in the city. In the Arena Football League, The Georgia Force has been Atlanta's team since the franchise relocated from Nashville in 2002. The 2005 National Conference champions currently play in Philips Arena.

The Atlanta Hawks basketball team has been the National Basketball Association franchise of Atlanta since 1969; the team was previously known as the Tri-Cities Blackhawks (1946-1951), Milwaukee Hawks (1951-55), St. Louis Hawks (1955-68). Their only NBA championship was in 1958, when they were the St. Louis Hawks.

From 1992 to 1996 Atlanta was home to the short-lived Atlanta Knights, an International Hockey League team. Their inaugural season was excellent for a new team, and was only bested by their sophom*ore season in which they won the championship Turner Cup. In 1996 they moved to Quebec City and became the Quebec Rafales. In 1999 the Atlanta Thrashers hockey team became Atlanta's National Hockey League franchise. They replaced the Atlanta Flames which had departed for Calgary, Alberta in 1980, becoming the Calgary Flames. The Thrashers have yet to make it to the playoffs. Both the Thrashers and the Hawks play in Philips Arena.

In golf, the final event of the PGA Tour season, THE TOUR Championship, is played annually at East Lake Golf Club. This golf course is used because of its connection to the great amateur golfer Bobby Jones, an Atlanta native.

From 2001 to 2003 Atlanta hosted the Atlanta Beat soccer team of the defunct Women's United Soccer Association. They appeared in two of the three Founders Cup championships held, losing to the Bay Area CyberRays in 2001, and the Washington Freedom team in 2003. Currently, Atlanta is the home of the Atlanta Silverbacks of the United Soccer Leagues First Division (Men) and W-League (Women)

The Atlanta Kookaburras are a successful Australian rules football club that compete in mens and women's divisions in the MAAFL and SEAFL and USAFL National Championships.

Other nearby sports facilities include Atlanta Motor Speedway, a 1.5 mile (2.4 km) NASCAR race track in Hampton, Georgia. Road Atlanta is another famous local race track, located in Braselton, Georgia.

See also: U.S. cities with teams from four major sports

[edit]

Religion

There are over 1,000 churches and other places of worship within the city of Atlanta.[8] A large majority of Atlantans profess to following a Protestant Christian faith. A number of African-American megachurches are located in the Atlanta area, including New Birth Missionary Baptist Church, led by Bishop Eddie Long, and World Changers Ministries, led by Creflo Dollar. In addition to nearly 50 nonsectarian private schools listed in Fulton and DeKalb counties, there are over 80 religiously-affiliated private schools.

Atlanta is also home to a large, vibrant Jewish community estimated by the Jewish Federation of Atlanta's Jewish Community Study to include 120,000 individuals in 61,300 households (study by the Ukeles Associates, 2006). This study places Atlanta's Jewish population as the 11th largest in the United States, up from 17th largest in 1996. The Temple synagogue, located on Peachtree Street, and its then-rabbi, Alvin Sugarman, were featured in the film Driving Miss Daisy.

As the see of the Catholic Archdiocese of Atlanta, Atlanta serves as the Provincial See for the Province of Atlanta. The city is also a major Southern Baptist center.

Atlanta is also the see of the Episcopal Diocese of Altanta, one of the largest in the country, both in number of member parishes and in individual worshipers. The Diocese is headquartered at Saint Philip's Cathedral and is currently lead by the Right Reverend J. Neil Alexander whose powerful and influential voice within the Church made him a candidate for Primacy at the 2006 General Convention.

The city is also the headquarters of the Greek Orthodox Metropolis of Atlanta, with Annunciation Cathedral and Metropolitan Alexios presiding. In total, there are eleven Orthodox parishes in Atlanta, including Greek, Orthodox Church in America, Antiochian, Serbian, Ukrainian and Romanian.

The Southeast Conference, United Church of Christ, is also headquartered in Atlanta and serves the states of Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, South Carolina, and central and eastern Tennessee. There are eight United Church of Christ congregations in the Atlanta metro area.

[edit]

Economy

The World of Coca-ColaDespite romantic associations, Atlanta has always been more a commercial city than an ante-bellum monument. It is the major center of regional commerce, and boasts an especially strong convention and trade show business. According to the ranking of world cities undertaken by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group & Network (GaWC) and based on the level of presence of global corporate service organisations, Atlanta is considered a "Gamma World City."

Several major national and international companies are headquartered in Atlanta or its nearby suburbs, including four Fortune 100 companies: The Coca-Cola Company (started in Atlanta), Home Depot (started in Atlanta), BellSouth, and United Parcel Service in adjacent Sandy Springs. Home Depot founder Bernie Marcus donated more than 200 million dollars to build the new Georgia Aquarium. The headquarters of wireless giant Cingular can be found a short distance inside the perimeter on I-75. Delta Air Lines is also headquartered in Atlanta (which it maintains a hub at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport) and is a major employer. Newell Rubbermaid is one of the most recent companies to relocate its headquarters to the metro area (Sandy Springs).

Among the bad things to hit Atlanta's economy is the closing of General Motor's Doraville Assembly plant in Doraville around 2008, and the Ford Motor Company's Atlanta Assembly plant in Hapeville in 2006. The combined job loss is estimated to be from 6,000 to 8,000. However, Kia is planning to build an assembly plant near West Point, Georgia.

Just west of Midtown, a former Atlantic Steel plant has been redeveloped as Atlantic Station, a mixed-use urban renewal project combining housing, retail, and office space, and promoted as part of the solution to Atlanta's serious traffic and air quality problems. The metro area has one of America's longest average daily commutes, and is one of the most car-dependent cities on the planet due both to suburban sprawl and underfunded mass transit systems. It also has a reputation as being one of the most dangerous for pedestrians,[9] as far back as 1949 when Gone with the Wind author Margaret Mitchell was struck by a speeding car and killed.

The city is a major cable television programming source; CNN Center, headquarters of the Cable News Network, is in Atlanta where the network was founded by Ted Turner, and The Weather Channel broadcasts from just outside of town. In addition to CNN, Time Warner's other networks from Atlanta include Cartoon Network/Adult Swim and companion channel Boomerang, TNT, Turner South, CNN International, CNN en Español, CNN Headline News, CNN Airport Network, and TBS. Atlanta's WTBS channel 17 (originally WTCG) was Turner's start in television in the 1970s; after he bought the struggling UHF TV station, he turned it into a "Superstation" broadcasting both locally and nationally on the emerging cable providers. Atlanta's WSB was the first AM radio station in the South.

See also: list of major companies in Atlanta

[edit]

Infrastructure

[edit]

Government

Atlanta City HallAtlanta is governed by a mayor and a city council. The city council consists of 15 representatives—one from each of the city's twelve districts and three at-large positions. The mayor may veto a bill passed by the council, but the council can override the veto with a two-thirds majority. The current mayor of Atlanta is Shirley Franklin.

Possibly owing to the city's African American majority, each mayor elected since 1973 has been black. The uninterrupted string of black mayors in excess of thirty years is a first for any metropolitan area in the country. Maynard Jackson served two terms and was succeeded by Andrew Young in 1982. Jackson returned for a third term in 1990 and was succeeded by Bill Campbell. In 2001, Shirley Franklin became the first woman to be elected Mayor of Atlanta. She was re-elected for a second term in 2005, winning 90% of the vote. Atlanta city politics during the Campbell administration suffered from a notorious reputation for corruption, and in 2006 a federal jury convicted former mayor Bill Campbell on three counts of tax evasion in connection with gambling income he received while Mayor during trips he took with city contractors.

The Georgia State Capitol in AtlantaAs the state capital, Atlanta is also the site of most of Georgia's state government, including the Georgia State Capitol (topped with gold from Dahlonega, Georgia)and constructed in 1886 houses the General Assembly. Atlanta is the residence of the Governor of Georgia in Buckhead. The "Governor's Mansion" is located on West Paces Ferry Road, in the heart of the up-scale residential community of Buckhead. Atlanta is also home to Georgia Public Broadcasting headquarters and Peachnet, and is the county seat of Fulton County, with which it shares responsibility for the Atlanta-Fulton Public Library System.

[edit]

Transportation

MARTA provides public transportation in Atlanta.Atlanta is served by Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport (IATA: ATL, ICAO: KATL), one of the world's busiest airports as measured by passenger traffic and by aircraft traffic, providing air service to and from many national and international destinations. It is situated 10 miles (16 km) south of downtown, adjacent to the intersection of I-85 and I-285. The MARTA rail system has a station within the airport terminal, and provides direct service to the business areas in downtown Atlanta, Buckhead and Sandy Springs. The major general aviation airports near the city proper are DeKalb-Peachtree Airport (IATA: PDK, ICAO: KPDK) and Brown Field (IATA: FTY, ICAO: KFTY). See List of airports in the Atlanta area for a more complete listing.

Three major interstate highways intersect the city; I-20 runs east-west, while I-75 runs NW to SE and I-85 runs NE to SW, and join together as the Downtown Connector through the center of the city. The Downtown Connector carries more than 340,000 vehicles a day and is considered one of the ten most congested stretches of interstate in the U.S.[10] I-285 (also known as "the Perimeter") encircles the city and some of its inner suburbs. I-75 just north of the Windy Hill Road interchange in Cobb County is one of the widest freeways (seventeen lanes) in the entire world. The intersection of I-85 and I-285 in Doraville, locally referred to as Spaghetti Junction, is one of the tallest in the eastern United States. Metropolitan Atlanta is crisscrossed by thirteen freeways (in addition to the aforementioned interstates, I-575, Georgia 400, Georgia 141, I-675, Georgia 316, I-985, Stone Mountain Freeway (US 78), and Langford Parkway (SR 166)). One of the most notable features of Atlanta's roads are the sheer number of them named Peachtree Street or some variation thereof.

The Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority (MARTA) is Atlanta's public-transit system, operating the rail and bus system within Fulton and Dekalb Counties. Clayton, Cobb, and Gwinnett counties each operate separate, autonomous transit authorities, using buses but no trains. However, many commuters in Atlanta and the surrounding suburbs use private automobiles as their primary transportation. (This may be partly because Georgia has had one of the lowest excise taxes on gasoline in the United States. Such taxes in Georgia have risen, however, in recent years: for example, in July 2002, Alaska was the only state with a tax lower than Georgia's 30.6 cents per gallon, but, by August 2005, Georgia's tax had risen by 34.6%, to 41.2 cents per gallon, and 21 states and the District of Columbia had taxes lower than Georgia's.[11][12]) This results in heavy traffic during rush hour and contributes to Atlanta's air pollution. In recent years, the Atlanta metro area has ranked at or near the top of the longest average commute times in the U.S. In 2001 a group of transit riders joined to form Citizens for Progressive Transit, an organization dedicated to increasing the reach and improving the quality of public transportation in metro Atlanta.

Atlanta grew up as a railroad town and is still today a major rail junction, with several busy freight lines belonging to Norfolk Southern and CSX intersecting below street level in the downtown area. Long-distance passenger service is provided by Amtrak's Crescent train, which connects Atlanta with Baltimore, Maryland; Birmingham, Alabama ; Charlotte, North Carolina; New Orleans, Louisiana; New York, New York; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and Washington, D.C. The Amtrak station at 1688 Peachtree Street Northwest and known as Brookwood Station is several miles north of downtown and not well placed for future development of public transportation. An ambitious, long-standing proposal would create a Multi-Modal Passenger Terminal downtown, adjacent to Philips Arena and the Five-Points MARTA station, which would link, in a single facility, MARTA bus and rail, intercity bus service, proposed commuter rail service to other Georgia cities, and Amtrak.

Greyhound Lines provides intercity bus service between Atlanta and many locations throughout the United States and Canada. The Greyhound terminal is situated at 232 Forsyth Street, on the southern edge of the downtown area and directly beneath MARTA's Garnett rail station.

The proposed Beltline would create a greenway and public transit system in a circle around the city from a series of mostly abandoned rail lines. This rail right-of-way would also accommodate multi-use trails connecting a string of existing and new parks. In addition, there is a proposed streetcar project that would create a streetcar line along Peachtree from downtown to Buckhead as well as possibly another East-West line.

[edit]

Education

[edit]

Public schools

The public school system (Atlanta Public Schools) is run by the Atlanta Board of Education with superintendent Dr. Beverly L. Hall. Currently, the system has an active enrollment of 51,000 students, attending a total of 85 schools: 59 elementary schools (three of which operate on a year-round calendar), 16 middle schools, 10 high schools, and 7 charter schools.[13] The school system also supports two alternative schools for middle and/or high school students, two community schools, and an adult learning center. The school system also owns and operates radio station WABE-FM 90.1 (the National Public Radio affiliate) and PBS television station WPBA 30.

[edit]

Private schools

Notable private schools in Atlanta include Woodward Academy (College Park), The Marist School, The Westminster Schools (Buckhead), The Lovett School (Buckhead), Holy Innocents' Episcopal School (Buckhead), Pace Academy (Buckhead), The Paideia School, The Galloway School (Chastain Park), St. Pius X Catholic High School (Chamblee), Inman Cooperative Pre-school (Inman park), Atlanta International School (Buckhead), Dar-un-Noor School, and the Atlanta Girls School. Old Suwanee Christian School (Buford)

[edit]

Colleges and universities

Georgia Tech TowerAtlanta has more than 30 institutions of higher education, among which Emory University, the Georgia Institute of Technology (popularly known as Georgia Tech), Georgia State University, Mercer University, and Oglethorpe University are prominent. Atlanta University Center, a consortium of historically black colleges and universities, is also located in the city; members of the consortium include Clark Atlanta University, Morehouse College, Morehouse School of Medicine, Morris Brown College, and Spelman College. Adjoining the AUC schools, but independent from them, is the Interdenominational Theological Center, a collection of seminaries and theological schools from a variety of denominations. The Reformed Theological Seminary is another Atlanta school. The Savannah College of Art and Design opened a Midtown, Atlanta, campus in 2005 and acquired the Atlanta College of Art shortly thereafter. John Marshall Law School is the city's only freestanding law school and produces many local lawyers.

Institutions in the metropolitan area include Agnes Scott College, in Decatur; Columbia Theological Seminary, also in Decatur; Clayton State University, in Morrow; DeVry University, in Decatur; Georgia Perimeter College, with campuses in Alpharetta, Clarkston, Conyers, Covington (scheduled to open in January 2007), Decatur, Dunwoody, and Lawrenceville; Gwinnett University Center (soon to be known as Georgia Gwinnett College, in Lawrenceville); Kennesaw State University, in Kennesaw; Southern Polytechnic State University, in Marietta; and the University of West Georgia, in Carrollton.

[edit]

Sister Cities

Atlanta has nineteen sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International, Inc. (SCI):[14]

Brussels, Belgium

Bucharest, Romania

Canberra, Australia

Cotonou, Benin

Daegu, South Korea

f*ckuoka, Japan

Lagos, Nigeria

Montego Bay, Jamaica

Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom

Nuremberg (Nürnberg), Germany

Ancient Olympia, Greece

Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago

Ra'anana, Israel

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Salcedo, Dominican Republic

Salzburg, Austria

Taipei, Taiwan

Tbilisi, Georgia

Toulouse, France

[edit]

See also

Downtown Atlanta

Atlanta in fiction

Architecture of Atlanta

List of famous Atlantans

List of major companies in Atlanta

List of mayors of Atlanta

List of Atlanta neighborhoods

Atlanta metropolitan area

I-85 Corridor

Atlanta and Fulton County

[edit]

References

^ Atlanta Race Riot. Retrieved on 2006-09-06.

^ Atlanta, Georgia (1900-2000). Our Georgia History. Retrieved on 2006-04-02.

^ Ice Storms. Storm Encyclopedia. Weather.com. Retrieved on 2006-04-02.

^ Monthly Averages for Atlanta, GA. Weather.com. Retrieved on 2006-04-02.

^ Historical Weather for Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America. Weather.com. Retrieved on 2006-04-02.

^ Gibson, Campbell (June 1998). POPULATION OF THE 100 LARGEST CITIES AND OTHER URBAN PLACES IN THE UNITED STATES: 1790 TO 1990. Population Division, U.S. Bureau of the Census. Retrieved on 2006-04-02.

^ Estimated Daytime Population. U.S. Census Bureau (December 06, 2005). Retrieved on 2006-04-02.

^ "Atlanta, Ga.", Information Please Database. Retrieved 2006-05-17

^ Bennett, D.L., Duane D. Stanford (16 June 2000). "Atlanta the Second Most Dangerous City in America for Pedestrians". Atlanta Journal/Constitution. Retrieved on 2006-03-19.

^ Worst City Choke Points. Forbes.com. Retrieved on 2006-04-02.

^ Historical Trends in Motor Gasoline Taxes, 1918-2002. American Petroleum Institute. Retrieved on 2006-04-10.

^ Gasoline Tax Rates (August 2005). American Petroleum Institute. Retrieved on 2006-04-10.

^ Atlanta Public Schools at Glance (2004). Retrieved on 2006-03-19.

^ Sister Cities International. Retrieved on 2006-04-07.

[edit]

Further reading

Atlanta and Environs: A Chronicle of Its People and Events : Years of Change and Challenge, 1940-1976 by Franklin M. Garrett, Harold H. Martin

Atlanta, GA (Source for Atlanta Flag)

Atlanta, Then and Now. Part of the Then and Now book series.

Darlene R. Roth and Andy Ambrose. Metropolitan Frontiers: A short history of Atlanta. Atlanta: Longstreet Press, 1996. An overview of the city's history with an emphasis on its growth.

Sjoquist, Dave (ed.) The Atlanta Paradox. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. 2000.

Stone, Clarence. Regime Politics: Governing Atlanta, 1946-1988. University Press of Kansas. 1989.

Elise Reid Boylston. Atlanta: Its Lore, Legends and Laughter. Doraville: privately printed, 1968. Lots of neat anecdotes about the history of the city.

Frederick Allen. Atlanta Rising. Atlanta: Longstreet Press, 1996. A detailed history of Atlanta from 1946 to 1996, with much about City Councilman, later Mayor, William B. Hartsfield's work in making Atlanta a major air transport hub, and about the American Civil Rights Movement as it affected (and was affected by) Atlanta.

[edit]

External links

Find more information on Atlanta by searching Wikipedia's sister projects:

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Atlanta travel guide from Wikitravel

New Homes Directory

Official Atlanta Travel Site

Official Website

Atlanta's South Discussions Forum

Atlanta Convention and Visitors Bureau

History of Atlanta, Georgia Two articles that cover the history of Atlanta until 1868.

Atlanta Time Machine - then/now photographs of Atlanta

Atlanta Walkabout - grassroots business directory for Atlanta

Listen to Atlanta Police and Fire radio

Atlanta Virtual Tour

Downtown Atlanta Map

Maps and aerial photos Coordinates: 33.759506° -84.403176°

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Topographic map from TopoZone

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United States state capitals[ Show ]

Alabama | Alaska | Arizona | Arkansas | California | Colorado | Connecticut | Delaware | Florida | Georgia | Hawaii | Idaho | Illinois | Indiana | Iowa | Kansas | Kentucky | Louisiana | Maine | Maryland | Massachusetts | Michigan | Minnesota | Mississippi | Missouri | Montana | Nebraska | Nevada | New Hampshire | New Jersey | New Mexico | New York | North Carolina | North Dakota | Ohio | Oklahoma | Oregon | Pennsylvania | Rhode Island | South Carolina | South Dakota | Tennessee | Texas | Utah | Vermont | Virginia | Washington | West Virginia | Wisconsin | Wyoming

Metropolitan area of Atlanta

Central City: Atlanta

Largest cities (over 20,000 in 2000): Alpharetta • Candler-McAfee (CDP) • College Park • Douglasville • Duluth • Dunwoody (CDP) • East Point • Forest Park • Griffin • Johns Creek • Kennesaw • Lawrenceville • Mableton (CDP) • Marietta • North Atlanta (CDP) • Peachtree City • Redan (CDP) • Roswell • Sandy Springs • Smyrna • Stockbridge • Tucker (CDP)

Largest towns and villages (over 10,000 in 2000): Acworth • Belevedere Park • Buford • Carrollton • Cartersville • Conyers • Covington • Decatur • Druid Hills • Fayetteville • Lilburn •Monroe •Mountain Park, Gwinnett County • Newnan • North Decatur (CDP) • North Druid Hills • Panthersville • Powder Springs • Riverdale • Snellville • Sugar Hill • Union City • Winder • Woodstock

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State of Georgia

Regions Colonial Coast | The Golden Isles | Historic South | Inland Empire | Metro Atlanta | North Georgia Mountains | Southern Rivers

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Summer Olympic Games host cities[ Show ]

1896: Athens • 1900: Paris • 1904: St. Louis • 1908: London • 1912: Stockholm • 1920: Antwerp • 1924: Paris • 1928: Amsterdam • 1932: Los Angeles • 1936: Berlin • 1948: London • 1952: Helsinki • 1956: Melbourne • 1960: Rome • 1964: Tokyo • 1968: Mexico City • 1972: Munich • 1976: Montreal • 1980: Moscow • 1984: Los Angeles • 1988: Seoul • 1992: Barcelona • 1996: Atlanta • 2000: Sydney • 2004: Athens • 2008: Beijing • 2012: London

50 Largest cities of the United States by population v·d·e

New York City • Los Angeles • Chicago • Houston • Philadelphia • Phoenix • San Antonio • San Diego • Dallas • San Jose • Detroit • Indianapolis • Jacksonville • San Francisco • Columbus • Louisville • Austin • Memphis • Baltimore • Fort Worth • Charlotte • El Paso • Milwaukee • Nashville • Seattle • Boston • Denver • Washington • Las Vegas • Portland • Oklahoma City • Tucson • Albuquerque • Long Beach • Atlanta • Fresno • Sacramento • New Orleans • Cleveland • Kansas City • Mesa • Virginia Beach • Omaha • Oakland • Tulsa • Miami • Honolulu • Minneapolis • Colorado Springs • Arlington

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Categories: Articles with unsourced statements | Host cities of the Summer Olympic Games | 1845 establishments | 1847 incorporations | All-America City | Atlanta, Georgia | Cities in Georgia (U.S. state)

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Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

Detroit (IPA: [dɪˈtʰɹɔɪt]) (French: Détroit, pronounced [detʁwa] (help·info)) is the largest city in the U.S. state of Michigan and the seat of Wayne County. Founded in 1701 by French fur traders, it is a major port city located on the Detroit River, north of Windsor, Ontario in the Midwestern region of the United States. Today, it is known as the world's traditional automotive center and an important source of popular music—legacies celebrated by the city's two familiar nicknames, Motor City and Motown. The city's present name comes from the Detroit River, which in turn derives from the French Rivière du Détroit, meaning "River of the Strait". The name alludes to the connection the river forms between Lake St. Clair and Lake Erie, although it is not literally a strait.

In 2005, Detroit ranked as the United States's 11th most populous city with 886,675 residents; this is less than half of the peak population it had in 1950, and Detroit leads the nation in terms of declining urban population. It is the focus city of the nation's tenth-largest metropolitan area, and the fourth-largest if Windsor and its environs are included.

Detroit's crime rate has brought it notoriety[2] while the city continues to struggle with the burdens of racial disharmony between itself and its suburban neighbors. The city has experienced budget shortfalls[3], leading to cuts in city services. Nevertheless, Detroit is currently experiencing a downtown revival with the construction of the Compuware headquarters, a recently renovated Renaissance Center, three gambling casinos, new stadiums, and a Riverwalk. The city serves as an entertainment hub for the metropolitan region.

Residents are generally known as "Detroiters." The name Detroit is also sometimes used as shorthand for the entire Metro Detroit area, a sprawling region with a population of 4,488,335 as of the 2005 Census Bureau estimates. Local colloquialisms for the city are The D and The 313 (its area code).

Contents [hide]

1 History

2 Geography and climate

2.1 Cityscape

2.2 Climate

3 Demographics

4 Economy

5 Law and government

6 Crime

7 Education

8 Culture

8.1 Media

8.2 Sites of interest

8.3 Sports

8.3.1 City of Champions

8.3.2 Recent Events

9 Infrastructure

9.1 Medicine

9.2 Transportation

10 See also

11 Notes

12 Further reading

13 External links

[edit]

History

Historical populations

Census Pop. %±

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1820 1,422 —

1830 2,222 56.0%

1840 9,102 309.6%

1850 21,019 130.9%

1860 45,619 117.0%

1870 79,577 74.4%

1880 116,340 46.2%

1890 205,876 80.0%

1900 285,704 38.8%

1910 465,766 63.0%

1920 993,678 113.3%

1930 1,568,662 36.7%

1940 1,623,452 3.5%

1950 1,849,568 13.9%

1960 1,670,144 -9.7%

1970 1,514,063 -9.3%

1980 1,203,368 -20.5%

1990 1,027,974 -14.6%

2000 951,270 -7.5%

Main article: History of Detroit, Michigan

Detroit in the 1880s.As of 2005, Detroit's population has dwindled to 886,675. A 6.8% loss from the 2000 Census population

Traveling up the Detroit River on the ship Le Griffon (previously captained by La Salle), Father Louis Hennepin noted the north bank of the river as an ideal location for a settlement. There, in 1701, French officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded a fort and settlement called Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, naming it after the comte de Pontchartrain, minister of marine under Louis XIV. The settlement prospered as a fur-trading center, and its fort offered protection for French ships sailing the Great Lakes.

In 1760, during the French and Indian War, British troops gained control of the area and shortened the name of the settlement to Detroit. Local Native American tribes, many of whom had developed friendly relations with French colonists, became alarmed at this development. Led by Chief Pontiac, an Ottawa leader, in 1763 several tribes launched what became known as Pontiac's Rebellion, which included a siege of Fort Detroit; they were ultimately defeated by the British. In 1796, Detroit passed to the United States under the Jay Treaty. In 1805, fire destroyed almost the entire town; a river warehouse and brick chimneys of the wooden homes were the sole structures to survive.[4]

From 1805 to 1847, Detroit was the capital of Michigan. Detroit fell to British troops during the War of 1812 in the Siege of Detroit, was recaptured by the United States in 1813 and incorporated as a city in 1815. Prior to the American Civil War, the city's access to the Canadian border made it a key stop along the underground railroad.[5]

Strategically located along the Great Lakes waterway, Detroit emerged as a transportation hub. The city grew steadily from the 1830s with the rise of shipping, shipbuilding, and manufacturing industries. A thriving carriage trade prompted Henry Ford to build his first automobile in 1896 in a rented workshop on Mack Avenue, and in 1904, the Model T was produced. Ford's manufacturing—and those of automotive pioneers William C. Durant, the Dodge brothers, and Walter Chrysler reinforced Detroit's status as the world's automotive capital. The industry spurred the city's spectacular growth during the first half of the 20th century as it drew many new residents, particularly from the Southern United States. Strained racial relations were evident in the trial of Ossian Sweet, a black Detroit physician acquitted of murder after he shot into a large mob when he moved from the all-black part of the city to an all-white area.[6] With the introduction of prohibition, the river was a major conduit for Canadian spirits, organized in large part by the notorious Purple Gang.[7]

A photograph of the Detroit Cadillac plant on Clifford Avenue, circa 1910With the factories came high-profile labor strife, climaxing in the 1930s as the United Auto Workers initiated bitter disputes with Detroit's auto manufacturers. The labor activism established during those years brought notoriety to hometown union leaders such as Jimmy Hoffa and Walter Reuther. The 1940s saw the construction of the world's first urban depressed freeway, the Davison[8] and the industrial growth during World War II that led to Detroit's nickname as the Arsenal of Democracy.[9]

Greektown Casino, one of three casinos in DetroitDetroit has endured a painful decline since the 1950s, and is often held up as a symbol of Rust Belt urban blight. The 12th Street Riot in 1967 and court-ordered busing accelerated white flight from the city. Large numbers of buildings and homes were abandoned, with many remaining for years in a state of decay. The percentage of black residents increased rapidly thereafter, as most of them stayed on. In 1973 the city elected its first black mayor, Coleman Young. Young's style during his record five terms in office was not well received by many whites.[10]

The 1970s and 1980s saw the rise of the heroin and crack cocaine epidemics, which spread to big cities across the United States, including Detroit. Drug-related property crimes and violence among competing drug dealers rose, and urban renewal efforts led to the razing of abandoned homes. Sizeable tracts have reverted to nature, to become a form of urban prairie with wild animals spotted migrating into the city.[11]

"Renaissance" has been a perennial buzzword among leaders since the 1967 riots, reinforced by the construction of the Renaissance Center in the early 1970s. It was not until the 1990s that Detroit enjoyed a moderate revival, much of it centered downtown. From 1996 onwards, three casinos opened: MGM Grand Detroit, Motor City Casino, and Greektown Casino. In 2000, Comerica Park replaced historic Tiger Stadium as the home of the Detroit Tigers,[12] and in 2002, Ford Field brought the NFL's Detroit Lions back into Detroit, from Pontiac. The 2004 opening of the Compuware Center gave downtown Detroit its first significant new office building in a decade. The city hosted Super Bowl XL, and saw the arrival of many improvements to the downtown area. Additionally, the first portions of the Detroit River Walk were laid down. In the summer of 2006, announcements came for the redevelopment of the abandoned Fort Shelby and Book-Cadillac Hotels.

[edit]

Geography and climate

A simulated-color satellite image of Detroit taken on NASA's Landsat 7 satellite.According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 142.9 square miles (370.2 km²); of this, 138.8 square miles (359.4 km²) is land and 4.2 square miles (11 km²) is water. The highest elevation in Detroit is in the University District neighborhood in northwestern Detroit, just west of Palmer Park sitting at a height of 670 feet (204 m). Detroit's lowest elevation is along its riverfront, of course, sitting at a height of 579 feet (176 m). Detroit completely encircles the cities of Hamtramck and Highland Park. On its northeast border are the wealthy communities of Grosse Pointe. Oakland and Macomb counties lie to the north. Alter Road divides Detroit and Grosse Pointe Park. It divides one of the poorest and most crime-ridden communities in the United States to one of the most affluent, with multi-million dollar mansions on Lake Shore Drive in the Grosse Pointes.

The city is crossed by three road systems: the original French template, radial roads from a Washington, D.C.-inspired system, and true north–south roads from the Northwest Ordinance township system. It sits atop a large salt mine,[13] and is north of Windsor, Ontario. Detroit is the only major city along the U.S.-Canadian border in which one travels south in order to cross into Canada. Detroit has four border crossings: the Ambassador Bridge and the Detroit-Windsor Tunnel provides motor vehicle thoroughfare and the Michigan Central Railway Tunnel railroad access to and from Canada. The fourth border crossing is the Detroit-Windsor Truck Ferry, located near the Windsor Salt Mine and Zug Island.

[edit]

Cityscape

The Detroit skyline shows a variety of architectural styles. The city has one of America's largest remaining collections of 1920's and 1930's skyscrapers and historic structures. The Art Deco style from this period is exemplified by the Guardian Building downtown as well as the Fisher Building and Cadillac Place in the New Center adjacent to Wayne State University. Among the city's prominent structures is the nation's first Fox Theatre, the Detroit Opera House, and the Detroit Institute of Arts. These and other historic buildings mingle with the post modern Comerica Tower and the gleaming towers of the Renaissance Center downtown near the Detroit River. While the downtown and New Center areas contain high-rise buildings, the majority of the surrounding city consists of low-rise structures and single-family homes. The city's southeast side contains many abandoned buildings and large tracts of empty land, to the north and west several neighborhoods are prosperous and show few signs of urban blight. In 2005, Detroit's architecture was heralded as some of America's finest; many of the city's architecturally significant buildings are listed by the National Trust for Historic Preservation as among America's most endangered landmarks.[14]

An open field in Detroit where houses once stood, an example of the urban blight from which sections of Detroit suffer.A number of downtown redevelopment projects — of which Campus Martius Park is one of the most notable — have revitalized parts of the city. Since the 1990s, there have been plans to redevelop the riverfront area from the Ambassador Bridge to Belle Isle (the largest island park in a U.S. city) with a combination of parks, residential buildings, and commercial areas. Other major parks include Palmer (north of Highland Park), River Rouge (in the southwest side), and Chene Parks (on the Detroit River east of downtown).

Detroit is also trying to rebuild its riverfront to make it similar to the park directly across the river in Windsor, Ontario. Windsor replaced acres of train tracks and some abandoned buildings with what is now 3 miles (5 km) of uninterrupted parkland. The Detroit Riverfront Conservancy is spearheading most of this development. Plans include Tri-Centennial State Park, Michigan's first urban state park. Hopes are that returning the riverfront to pedestrian uses rather than industrial uses will spur more residential development.[15]

Detroit's skyline as seen from midtown.[edit]

Climate

Detroit and the rest of southeastern Michigan have a typically Midwestern temperate seasonal climate, which is influenced by the Great Lakes. Winters are cold with moderate snowfall; summers can be warm and humid.[16] The average high temperature in July is 85°F (29°C) and in January 33°F (1°C). Summer temperatures can exceed 90°F (32°C), and winter temperatures rarely drop below 0°F (–17°C). Average monthly precipitation ranges from about two to five inches (50 to 130 mm), being heaviest in the summer months. Snowfall, which typically occurs from November to early April, ranges from 1 to 10 inches (3 to 25 cm) a month.[17] The highest recorded temperature was 103.0°F (39.0°C) on June 25, 1988, while the lowest recorded temperature was –17.0°F (–27.0°C) on January 19, 1994.[18]

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Avg high °F (°C) 31 (0) 33 (0) 44 (6) 58 (14) 70 (21) 79 (26) 83 (28) 81 (27) 74 (23) 62 (16) 48 (9) 35 (1) 58 (14)

Avg low °F (°C) 16 (-8) 18 (-7) 27 (-2) 37 (2) 48 (8) 57 (13) 62 (16) 60 (15) 53 (11) 41 (5) 32 (0) 22 (-5) 39 (3)

Rainfall in inches (millimeters) 1.9 (48.3) 1.7 (43.2) 2.4 (61.0) 3.0 (76.2) 2.9 (73.7) 3.6 (91.4) 3.1 (78.7) 3.4 (86.4) 2.8 (71.1) 2.2 (55.9) 2.7 (68.6) 2.5 (63.5) 32.3 (820.4)

Source: Weatherbase[19]

[edit]

Demographics

See also: Neighborhoods and projects in Detroit, Michigan

Population and rank among US cities, 1840–2000 censuses[20]

Detroit's population increased more than sixfold during the first half of the 20th century, fed largely by an influx of Eastern European and Southern migrants — both white and black — who came to work in the burgeoning automobile industry. As of the 2000 census2, there were 951,270 people, 336,428 households, and 218,341 families residing in the city. The population density was 6,855.1 people per square mile (2,646.7/km²). There were 375,096 housing units at an average density of 2,703.0 people per square mi (1,043.6/km²).

As of 2001, the city was 81.55% Black or African American. Metro Detroit has a higher percentage of blacks than any other northern U.S. metropolitan area — roughly one quarter of the area population. More than one million African-Americans live in the metropolitan area, with about 80% living within the Detroit city limits. With the suburban outflux, Metro Detroit is among the nation's most racially segregated regions.[21] 81.55% Black or African American , 12.26% of residents are White & Middle Eastern 0.33% Native American, 0.97% Asian 0.03% Pacific Islander, 2.54% from other races, and 2.32% from two or more races. 4.96% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. The city's foreign-born population also stood at 4.8%, one of the lowest percentages of the 50 largest cities in the country.

Metro Detroit's ethnic communities are diverse and include descendants of the French founders, as well as Germans, Poles, Irish, Italians, Scots, Armenians and Greeks who settled during the city's early 20th century industrial boom. Metro Detroit has the largest concentration of Belgians outside of Belgium. The Detroit area is also home to a large Chaldean-Assyrian population and the country's largest concentration of Arab Americans. Mexicantown, on the southwest side of the city, is the historical center of a small Chicano community.

There were 336,428 households out of which 33.9% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 26.7% were married couples living together, 31.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.1% were non-families. 29.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.2% had someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.77 and the average family size was 3.45.

There is a wide age distribution in the city, with 31.1% under the age of 18, 9.7% from 18 to 24, 29.5% from 25 to 44, 19.3% from 45 to 64, and 10.4% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 89.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.5 males.

The median household income in the city was $29,526, and the median income for a family was $33,853. Males had a median income of $33,381 versus $26,749 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,717. 26.1% of the population and 21.7% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 34.5% of those under the age of 18 and 18.6% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.

The National Institute for Literacy declared in 1998 that 47% of Detroiters were "functionally illiterate."[22] Some 72% of all Detroit children are born to single mothers.[23]

[edit]

Economy

A United States Coast Guard Cutter passes the Renaissance Center, headquarters of General Motors.Detroit and the surrounding region constitute a manufacturing powerhouse, most notably as home to the Big Three automobile companies. The city is an important center for global trade with large international law firms having their offices in both Detroit and Windsor. There are hundreds of offices and plants in the automotive support business: parts, electronics, and design suppliers. The domestic auto industry accounts directly and indirectly for one of every ten jobs in the U.S.[24] The area is an important source of engineering job opportunities.

With its dependence on the auto industry, Detroit is more acutely vulnerable to economic cycles than most large cities.[25] A rise in automated manufacturing using robot technology, inexpensive labor in other parts of the world, and increased competition from foreign rivals have led to a steady decline in certain types of manufacturing jobs in the region. Other complications for city include higher taxes than the nearby suburbs, with many unable to afford the cost of citizenship entailed by levys on property and income [26] and a lack of city services. In February 2006, the metropolitan Detroit's unemployment rate was 8.6%, topped only by communities devastated by Hurricane Katrina.[27] In the city, the unemployment rate hovered around 15% at the end of 2005, leaving Detroit as the nation's poorest city with more than one-third of residents below the poverty line.[28]

Skaters at Compuware headquarters in Campus Martius Park.Some allege that the domestic auto industry's woes can be traced to its own history and devices. The Big Three automakers have collectively lost market share to foreign rivals which many had perceived as having higher quality[29] However, in 2003, Cadillac outscored Lexus in 2 of 3 quality surveys by AutoPacific, Strategic Vision, and J.D. Power.[30] The perception of quality from foreign rivals has been called into question, with Toyota experiencing quality issues in 2006.[31][32] In 1994, with a boom in demand for sport-utility vehicles and pickup trucks, the industry fought the Clinton administration's efforts to impose a 40% increase in Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards for many trucks and obtained Congress's approval to block the plan to develop stricter regulations.[33] In the late 1990s, Detroit's Big Three automakers had gained market share and were enjoying record profits until the recession of 2000 and the subsequent September 11, 2001 attacks caused a severe decline in the stock market along with a pension and benefit funds crisis. Since 2001, losses and bankruptcy filings by some of the area's auto parts manufacturers exacerbated Detroit's economic situation.

Initially, GM and Ford had sought to avoid or delay the introduction of unprofitable hybrids in favor of the all fuel cell vehicle; however, with rising gasoline prices and foreign rivals marketing hybrid cars, Detroit's auto makers responded by introducing hybrids amid criticism for the delay. In 2006, Ford announced a dramatic increase in production of its hybrid gas-electric models,[34] as well as promote the use of existing technologies to equip vehicles with mixed ethanol and gasoline fuelled systems. General Motors has invested heavily in all fuel cell equipped vehicles,[35] while Chrysler is focusing much of its research and development into biodiesel.[36] Two days after the September 11, 2001 attacks, GM announced it had developed the world's most powerful fuel cell stack capable of powering large commercial vehicles.[37] In 2002, the state of Michigan established NextEnergy, a non-profit corporation whose purpose is to enable commercialization of various energy technologies, especially hydrogen fuel cells. Its main complex is located north of Wayne State University.

With many new business in the suburbs, the region is very competitive in emerging growth areas including biotechnology, nanotechnology, information technology, cognotechnology, and hydrogen fuel cell development. Detroit has made efforts to lure the region's growth companies downtown with advantages such as a wireless Internet zone, business tax incentives, entertainment, an International Riverfront, and residential high rises.

Other Fortune 500 companies headquartered in Detroit include auto parts maker American Axle & Manufacturing, Comerica, and DTE Energy.[38] Detroit is home to Compuware and the national pizza chain Little Caesars. Electronic Data Systems, Visteon, Ernst & Young, and GM's OnStar are new major presences downtown. Quicken Loans is reportedly considering a consolidation of its suburban offices into a new downtown Detroit headquarters. Some major industries include advertising, law, finance, chemicals, and computer software. Compuware's new headquarters, GM's move to the Renaissance Center, and the State of Michigan's redevelopment of Cadillac Place in the New Center district have provided new synergies for the redevelopment of downtown.

Casino gaming plays a major economic role, with Detroit currently the largest city in the United States to offer major casino hotels.[39] Casino Windsor, Canada's largest, complements the MGM Grand Detroit, Motor City Casino, and Greektown Casino in Detroit. The casinos have brought new tax revenue to the city. In 2006, downtown Detroit reported $1.3 billion in restorations and new developments which increased the number of construction jobs in the city.[40] Medical service providers such as the Detroit Medical Center and Henry Ford Hospital are major employers in the city.

[edit]

Law and government

Main article: Government of Detroit, Michigan

The Coleman A. Young Municipal Center, housing the Detroit and Wayne County governmentsThe city government is run by a mayor and nine-member city council and clerk elected on an at-large nonpartisan ballot. Since voters approve the city's charter in 1974, Detroit has had a "strong mayoral" system, with the mayor approving departmental appointments. The council approves budgets but the mayor is not obligated to adhere to any earmarking. City ordinances and substantially large contracts must be approved by the council. The city clerk supervises elections and is formally charged with the maintenance of municipal records. Municipal elections for mayor, city council and city clerk are held every year congruent to 1 modulo 4 (meaning 1993, 1997, 2001, 2005, 2009).[41]

Exit onto 8 Mile Road from I-94, with 8 Mile being the city's northern borderPolitically, the city consistently supports the Democratic Party in local and national elections. Suburb baiting is another common feature in Detroit politics. In his 1974 inaugural address, former Mayor Coleman Young told the city's criminals to "hit Eight Mile Road" (the most prominent dividing line between Detroit and northern suburbs). When Mayor Kwame Kilpatrick found himself behind in the polls in the 2005 election, his campaign tried to draw attention to the support his opponent, Freman Hendrix, received in the suburbs. During one debate, Kilpatrick spoke of higher illegal drug use in the suburbs compared to Detroit.[42] However, many opponents have criticized Kilpatrick on the basis that many of his policies facilitate the gentrification taking place in the city.

With a decreasing population and decline in the automotive industry, the city's finances have been adversely affected. Detroit has cut its workforce and closed operations, including recreational facilities, to avoid state-ordered receivership.[43] In addition, Detroit has demanded pay cuts and other dramatic "give backs" from the municipal unions that represent city employees.[44] In the 2000s, Detroit has fought off legislative efforts to turn control of the city-owned Water and Sewer system to the suburbs.[45]

Detroit's courts are all state-administered and elections are nonpartisan. The Circuit and Probate Courts for Wayne County are located in the Coleman A. Young Municipal Center in downtown Detroit. The city is also home to the 36th District Court, as well as the 1st District of the Michigan Court of Appeals' and the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan.

Detroit has several sister cities, including Chongqing (People's Republic of China), Dubai (United Arab Emirates), Kitwe (Zambia), Minsk (Belarus), Nassau, Bahamas, Toyota (Japan), and Turin (Italy).[46]

See also: List of mayors of Detroit, Michigan

[edit]

Crime

2004 Crime statistics

(per 100,000)[47][48]

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Crime Detroit USA

Rape 81 32

Robbery 611 137

Assault 1,049 291

Burglary 1,368 730

Larceny 2,314 2,366

Auto Theft 2,755 421

Despite improvement in recent years, Detroit's crime figures are often among the highest in the U.S. The city is currently listed as the most dangerous city with more than 500,000 by the Morgan Quitno's statistics,[49] but comes after Camden, New Jersey. Detroit is consistently in the top five for homicide rates. Murders peaked at 714 in 1974 (garnering Detroit the nickname "Murder City", a play on "Motor City") though the highest murder rate was recorded in 1991, when there were 615 homicides and the city's population was just over a million, which factors into a murder rate of roughly 60 per 100,000. In 2003, there were 361 homicides, the lowest count in recent years.

Many of these problems are blamed on the widespread middle-class flight (which has contributed greatly to urban decay), poverty, de facto segregation of the region, and unemployment.[50] Some credit years of divisive, racially polarized government under Coleman Young with accelerating this flight; during the administration of Dennis Archer, who succeeded Young, Detroit saw middle-class residents moving into the city, and a large growth in residential and commercial development.

Abandoned and burned out shells of buildings are a frequent sight, with some 16,037 empty houses recorded in 1999. The city lacks funding to demolish the properties and the homes are often used for the production, sale, and use of illicit drugs, with drug gangs such as Young Boys Inc..[51]

Abandoned buildings are often left to the elements with the city government having no funds for restoration or removal.[52]An analysis of crime in downtown Detroit by the Michigan Metropolitan Information Center at Wayne State University found crime rates in the central city lower than rates for the entire nation, state and other large Michigan metro areas - and improving. Detroit also includes middle-class neighborhoods in which crime is less prevalent than in impoverished areas. Critics of the study have responded that the low crime rates are mainly a consequence of the very low population density in the city center[citation needed].

The city has faced hundreds of arsons, often in the city's many abandoned homes, each year on Devil's Night, the evening before Halloween. The Angel's Night campaign, launched in the late 1990s, draws many volunteers to patrol the streets during Halloween week. The effort has reduced arson: while there were 810 fires set in 1984, this was reduced to 142 in 1996.[53]

Brutality and the failure to ensure the rights of suspects has caused problems within the Detroit Police Department. In 2004, following scandals and multiple adverse legal decisions, a court-ordered reorganization of the Detroit Police Department was implemented under the supervision of the Federal Bureau of Investigation.[54]

From 2005 to 2006, the Detroit Police Department has more recently undergone large scale cuts and reorganization, cutting the number of precincts from 12 to 6 "districts." While the stated purpose of this reorganization was to improve services, it has resulted in widespread dissatisfaction within the Detroit Police Department, where members cite such problems as overcrowding, overwork, greatly increased response times, and constant change in the administrative structure of the department as senior officers are moved, promoted, and replaced.[55]

[edit]

Education

The city is served by the Detroit Public Schools (DPS) district, various charter schools, and private schools, and parochial Catholic schools run by the Archdiocese of Detroit.[56] In the early 1970s, the federal courts ordered busing to desegregate the system, which helped to accelerate the white flight that had been ongoing in the city.[57] As of 2004, Detroit schools were 91% African-American.[58]

Wayne State University's Hilberry TheatreIn the mid-to-late 1990s, the Michigan Legislature removed the locally elected board of education amid allegations of mismanagement and replaced it with a reform board appointed by the mayor and governor. The elected board of education returned following a city referendum in 2005. The first election of the new eleven member board of education occurred on November 8, 2005.[59] Due to rapidly declining enrollment, Detroit Public Schools has projected the closure of 95 schools by 2009.[60] Detroit Public Schools has closed 29 schools,[61] and the state mandated deficit reduction plan calls for the closure of a total of 110 schools.[62]

Detroit has several universities and colleges within its borders. Wayne State University is an internationally renowned university with medical and law schools. Other institutes of higher education are College for Creative Studies, Lewis College of Business, Marygrove College, University of Detroit Mercy, and Wayne County Community College. The Detroit College of Law, now affiliated with Michigan State University, was founded in the city in 1891 and remained there until 1997, when it relocated to East Lansing. Detroit was once the home of the University of Michigan, which was founded in Detroit in 1817 but later moved to Ann Arbor in 1837.

[edit]

Culture

Main articles: Culture of Detroit, Michigan, Black culture of Detroit, Music of Detroit.

Entrance to the Detroit Institute of Art located in the Cultural CenterMusic has been the dominant feature of Detroit's nightlife since the late 1940s. The metropolitan area boasts two of the top live music venues in the United States: DTE Energy Music Theatre and The Palace of Auburn Hills[63] Detroit is home to the Detroit Symphony Orchestra and the Detroit Opera House. Major theaters include the Fox Theatre, Masonic Temple Theatre, and the Fisher Theatre.

Throughout the 1950s, Detroit was a center for jazz, in which stars of the era often came to Detroit's Black Bottom neighborhood to perform.[64] One highlight of Detroit's musical history was Motown Records' success during the 1960s and early 1970s. The label was founded in Detroit by Berry Gordy, Jr. During the late 1960s, Detroiter Aretha Franklin became America's preeminent female soul artist. Metro Detroit also spawned a high-energy rock scene in the late 1960s, and were the precursors of the punk rock movement. The area is also generally accepted as the birthplace of the Techno movement. Detroit is more recently home to many prominent musical artists, notably Aaliyah, Eminem, and Sufjan Stevens. In addition, Detroit's garage rock scene of the 1990s rose to national attention with the success of The White Stripes. Eight annual music events are held in the city, including the DEMF/Movement/Fuse-In electronic music festival, Ford Detroit International Jazz Festival, the Motor City Music Conference (MC2), the Concert of Colors, and the hip-hop Summer Jamz music festival.

Artist Tyree Guyton created the controversial street art exhibit known as the Heidelberg Project in the mid 1980s. The exhibit used junk and abandoned cars, clothing, shoes, vaccuum cleaners, and other garbage Guyton found in the neighborhood near and on Heidelberg Steet on the near East Side of Detroit. Guyton also painted polka dots and other symbols on several houses on Heidelberg Street. The city sued Guyton twice for creating a public nuisance, removed large parts of his art project, and tore down two vacant homes he had painted with various symbols. Nevertheless, much of the Heidelberg Project remains today.

The car plays a major role in Detroit's cultural life in major events such as the North American International Auto Show. Due its close proximity to Canada, Detroit participates in the Windsor-Detroit International Freedom Festival, which features a fireworks display over the Detroit River and coincides with U.S. Independence day and Canada Day. The America's Thanksgiving Parade — previously referred to as the Hudson's Thanksgiving Day Parade — is one of the nation's largest and has been held continuously since 1924.[65]

[edit]

Media

The Fisher Building, located in the City's New Center area, home to the Fisher Theatre as well as the antenna for radio station WJR.The major daily newspapers serving Detroit are The Detroit Free Press and The Detroit News, both broadsheet publications that are published together under a joint operating agreement. Other Detroit publications are weekly tabloids The Metro Times and Crain's Detroit Business. Detroit is home to the weekly Michigan Chronicle, the state's largest African American owned newspaper, and the Michigan Citizen.

The Detroit television market is the 11th largest in the United States;[66] however, these estimates do not include large areas of Ontario, Canada (Windsor and its surrounding area on broadcast and cable, as well as several other cable markets in Ontario, such as the city of Ottawa) which receive and watch Detroit television stations, so the actual audience ranking may be higher. Broadcast channels in Detroit include WJBK (Fox), WDIV-TV (NBC), WXYZ (ABC), and WWJ-TV (CBS). Other Metro Detroit television stations include WMYD (The WB), WKBD-TV (UPN), WPXD-TV (Pax TV) and WADL-TV. WTVS is the city's PBS station. Detroiters also receive broadcasts from CBET, the CBC Television affiliate in Windsor. Depending on location, some viewers can receive Canadian networks such as TVOntario, CTV, Global, Citytv, and SRC.

Cable television came late to the city of Detroit; instead of breaking the city into several franchise areas, Mayor Young's administration granted a single franchise that covered the entire city to Barden Cablevision in 1982. This made it, at the time, the largest minority-owned cable television operator in the United States, though Barden could not begin to wire the city until 1986. It did not complete the wiring until several years later. The last areas to be wired were the few remaining white areas of the city, in line with Barden's corporate philosophy of targeting minority communities.[67] Barden Cablevision was bought by Comcast in 1994.

Detroit has the ninth largest radio market in the United States.[68] As with television, this ranking does not take into account Detroit radio's large Canadian audiences. The primary AM stations are WWJ 950 (news), WJR 760 (news-talk), WDFN 1130 (sports), WXYT 1270 (sports-talk) and WDTW 1310 (Air America). WDET 101.9 is the city's NPR station. WUOM 91.7 and WEMU 89.1 are also regional NPR affiliates. Windsor radio stations CIMX 88.7 and CBC 89.9 can be heard in the Detroit area.

[edit]

Sites of interest

Many Detroit museums are located in the Cultural Center near Wayne State University. These museums include Detroit Institute of Arts, the Detroit Historical Museum, Charles H. Wright Museum of African American History, Detroit Science Center, and the main branch of the Detroit Public Library. Other cultural highlights include the Motown Historical Museum, Tuskegee Airmen Museum, Fort Wayne, Dossin Great Lakes Museum, and the Belle Isle Conservatory. The Eastern Market farmer's distribution center is the largest open-air flowerbed market in the United States and has more than 150 foods and specialty businesses.[69]

Downtown Detroit buildings, the historic Art Deco Guardian Building is on the leftHart Plaza, between the Renaissance Center and Cobo Hall on the riverfront, is the site of many events and various music festivals. Other sites of interest are the Detroit Zoo, the Anna Scripps Whitcomb Conservatory, and the Belle Isle Aquarium. The aquarium and zoo on Belle Isle are currently closed.[70] The J.W. Westcott II, which delivers mail to freighters on the Detroit River, is the world's only floating post office.[71]

The most important civic sculpture in Detroit is the "Spirit of Detroit" at the Coleman Young Municipal Center. The image is often used as a symbol of Detroit and the statue itself is occasionally dressed in sports jerseys to celebrate when a Detroit team is doing well.[72] A memorial to Joe Louis at the intersection of Jefferson and Woodward Avenues was dedicated on October 16, 1986. The sculpture, commissioned by Sports Illustrated and executed by Robert Graham, is a 24 foot (7.3 m) long arm with a fisted hand suspended by a pyramidal framework.[73]

Other notable buildings include the Compuware headquarters, Fisher Building, Guardian Building, Detroit Public Library, and the Penobscot Building. Detroit has several historic churches that are open to the public.

[edit]

Sports

Main article: Sports in Detroit

See also: U.S. cities with teams from four major sports

Detroit is home to professional teams representing the four major sports in North America. All but two play within the city of Detroit (basketball's Detroit Pistons and Detroit Shock play in suburban Auburn Hills). There are three active major sports venues within the city: Comerica Park (home of the baseball team Detroit Tigers), Ford Field (home of the football team Detroit Lions), and Joe Louis Arena (home of the ice hockey team Detroit Red Wings). Detroit is known for its avid hockey fans. Interest in the sport has given the city the moniker of "Hockeytown."

Ford Field is adjacent to Comerica Park.In college sports, the University of Detroit Mercy has a NCAA Division I program, and Wayne State University has both NCAA Division I and II programs. The NCAA football Motor City Bowl is held at Ford Field each December.

Since 1904, the city has been home to the American Power Boat Association Gold Cup unlimited hydroplane boat race, held annually on the Detroit River near Belle Isle.[74]. Detroit was the former home of a round of the Formula One World Championship, which held the race on the streets of downtown Detroit from 1982 until 1988, after which the sanction moved from Formula One to Indycars until its final run in 2001.[75]

[edit]

City of Champions

Detroit was given the name, "City of Champions" in the 1930's for a series of successes both in individual and in team sport. Gar Wood (a native Detroiter) won the Harmsworth Trophy for unlimited powerboat racing on the Detroit River in 1931. In the Next year, 1932, Eddie "the Midnight Express" Tolan, a black student from Detroit's Cass Technical High School, won the 100- and 200-meter races and two gold medals at the 1932 Olympics. Joe Louis won the heavyweight championship of the world in 1937. Also, suprisingly in 1935, the Detroit Lions won the National Football League championship. The Detroit Tigers won the American League pennant in 1934 and again in 1935. And the Tigers won the World Series in 1935, defeating the Chicago Cubs. The Detroit Red Wings won the National Hockey League's Stanley Cup in 1936 & 1937.[76][77]

[edit]

Recent Events

Comerica Park hosted the 2005 MLB All-Star Game on July 12, 2005, and Ford Field hosted Super Bowl XL on February 5, 2006. On December 13, 2003, the largest crowd in basketball history (78,129) packed Ford Field to watch the University of Kentucky defeat Michigan State University, 79-74.[78]

[edit]

Infrastructure

Emergency entrance to Detroit Receiving Hospital[edit]

Medicine

Detroit is home to three major medical systems: the Detroit Medical Center (DMC), Henry Ford Health System, and the St. John Hospitals. The DMC, a regional Level I trauma center, consists of Detroit Receiving Hospital and University Health Center, Children's Hospital of Michigan, Harper University Hospital, Hutzel Women's Hospital, Rehabilitation Institute of Michigan, Sinai-Grace Hospital, and the Karmanos Cancer Institute. The DMC has more than 2,000 licensed beds and 3,000 affiliated physicians.[79] The center is staffed by physicians from the Wayne State University School of Medicine, the largest single-campus medical school in the United States.[80]

[edit]

Transportation

Because of its proximity to Canada and its industrial facilities, major highways, rail connections and international airport, Detroit has been an important transportation hub. There are three international border crossings at the Ambassador Bridge, Detroit-Windsor Tunnel and Michigan Central Railway Tunnel, linking Detroit to Windsor, Ontario. Some 35% of U.S. trade with Canada passes through Detroit.[81] The Ambassador Bridge is the nation's busiest border crossing, carrying 25% of the total trade between the U.S. and Canada.[82]

A Detroit Department of Transportation bus along Woodward Avenue.Detroit is the crossroads for three Interstate Highways: I-94 (Edsel Ford Freeway), I-96 (Jeffries Freeway) and I-75 (Fisher and Chrysler Freeways). I-696 (Walter Reuther Freeway) serves the northern suburbs, while I-275 serves the western suburbs and I-375 is a short extension of the Chrysler Freeway. Other major routes are the John C. Lodge Freeway (M-10), the Southfield Freeway (M-39) and the Davison Freeway (M-8).

A Suburban Mobility Authority for Regional Transportation (SMART) bus traveling along Woodward AvenueColeman A. Young International Airport (DET), previously called Detroit City Airport, is on Detroit's northeast side. Although Southwest Airlines once flew from the airport, there is currently only charter service.[83] Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport (DTW), the area's principal airport, is located in nearby Romulus and is a hub for Northwest Airlines and Spirit Airlines. Toledo Express Airport in Toledo, Ohio, is a secondary commercial passenger airport. Willow Run Airport, in far-western Wayne County near Ypsilanti is a general aviation and cargo airport.

Mass transit in the city functions in two separate spheres of influence. Bus services are provided by the Detroit Department of Transportation (DDOT), which terminates at the outer edges of the suburbs. Services in the suburbs are provided by the Suburban Mobility Authority for Regional Transportation (SMART). Combining the systems has been problematic and tainted by the racial politics that has affected all aspects of city–suburban relationships.[84]

An automated guideway transit system known as the People Mover provides a 2.9 mile (4.6 km) loop in the downtown area and usually operates daily.[85] Amtrak provides service to Detroit, operating its Wolverine service between Chicago, Illinois, and Pontiac. The current passenger facility north of downtown replaced the presently unused Michigan Central Station, which was opened in 1913 and vacated in 1988.

Currently, a study is underway to investigate the feasibility of a Detroit-Ann Arbor commuter line,[86] which would service the nearly 100,000 daily commuters between the two regional hubs. The proposed system would be funded by a $100 million federal grant that is secured based on the results of the study.

[edit]

See also

Detroit (song)

Detroit in literature

List of films set in Detroit

List of people from Detroit

List of songs about Detroit

[edit]

Notes

^ US Census July 2005 est

^ Detroit ranked 2nd of America's most dangerous city.

^ Detroit's $230 million budget shortfall.

^ Ste. Anne of Detroit St. Anne Church (accessed April 29, 2006).

^ Blockson, Charles and Chase, Henry (4/05). Detroit - Follow the North Star, The Guiding Light of the Underground Railroad. American Visions.

^ Zacharias, Patricia (2003). 'I have to die a man or live a coward' -- the saga of Dr. Ossian Sweet. Detroit News.

^ As of 2005, Detroit's population has dwindled to 886,675. A 6.8% loss from the 2000 Census population How Prohibition made Detroit a bootlegger's dream town. Detroit News.

^ Michigan Highways. michiganhighways.org (accessed April 30, 2006).

^ Nolan, Jenny (2003). Willow Run and the Arsenal of Democracy. Detroit News

^ Detroit's 'great warrior,' Coleman Young, dies (November 29, 1997). CNN.com.

^ Wild Kingdom. Detroit Blog. Accessed March 8, 2006.

^ Lage, Larry (2003). Comerica Park has what Tiger Stadium didn't - in many ways. The Detroit News

^ Zacharias, Patricia (2001). The ghostly salt city beneath Detroit. The Detroit News.

^ Sharoff, Robert (2005). American City: Detroit Architecture 1845-2005 Wayne State University Press

^ Detroit Riverfront Conservancy. (accessed May 27, 2006).

^ Detroit Weather & Climate (2006). Michigan Vacations (accessed April 20, 2006).

^ Monthly Averages for Detroit, MI (2006). Weather.com (accessed April 20, 2006).

^ Records and Averages - Detroit (2006). Yahoo! Weather (accessed April 20, 2006).

^ http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weather.php3?s=073527&refer=&units=us

^ Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990 (June 1998). U.S. Bureau of the Census (accessed April 20, 2006).

^ Race Relations & Cultural Collaboration. New Detroit. Accessed March 8, 2006.

^ Literacy Volunteers of America-Detroit. United Way for Southeastern Michigan (accessed April 20, 2006)

^ Meeting on Supporting the Role of Fathers in Families - Statement of Travis Ballard (November 27, 1995). National Congress for Fathers and Children

^ Alliance of Automobile Manufaturers (2006). From the 2003 Study "Contributions of the Automotive Industry to the U.S. Economy" University of Michigan and the Center for Automotive Reseach.

^ Flint, Jerry (9/9/1996). Can Detroit Weather a Downturn?. Forbes, found at faculty.ncwc.edu/denders/eng112/sample_summary.htm

^ Josar, David (5/27/2005) Neighborhood rebirth stalls: High property taxes burden Detroit homeowners. Detroit News.

^ Bureau of Labor Statistics (2/2006). Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment Summary. U.S. Department of Labor.

^ Bello, Marisol (12/30/2005).Auto woes add to city's budget problems. Detroit Free Press.

^ Standard and Poors Report (March 14, 2006). Asia's Auto Makers Think Globally. Business Week

^ Auto Quality (June 4, 2003). USA Today

^ The Most recalled Cars (July 17, 2006). Business Week Online.

^ Associated Press (July, 21, 2006). Japan Condemns Toyota on recall practices.

^ Woellert , Lorraine (3/3/2001). Why Detroit May Swallow Some Bitter CAFE. Business Week.

^ Dorinda Elliott (1/30/2006). "Can This Man Save The American Auto Industry?" Time Magazine.

^ Kiley, David (6/13/2001). GM buys stake in firm tapping hydrogen power. USA Today.

^ PRNewswire (3/22/2006). Diesel Jeep Liberty Sales Double Expectations Yahoo News.

^ GM announces world's most powerful fuel cell stack (9/13/2001). GM Press Release.

^ Fortune 500 (2006). CNNMoney.com.

^ Brunker, Mike (3/12/1999) Detroit bets big on downtown casinos. MSNBC.

^ See the Change (2006) TheWorldisComing.com. City of Detroit Partnership.

^ Ward, George E. (July 1993). Detroit Charter Revision - A Brief History. Citizens Research Council of Michigan (pdf file).

^ Associated Press (9/19/05). Mayor rekindles tensions between Detroit and suburbs. USA Today.

^ Lin, Judy (4/28/05). Detroit triggers loan limit. The Detroit News.

^ Heath, B., et al. (1/13/05). Mayor: Fix Detroit or risk takeover. Detroit News.

^ Wisely, John (10/25/05). Suburbs ramp up water system fight. The Detroit News.

^ Online Directory: Michigan, USA (2006). Sister Cities International (accessed April 20, 2006).

^ Detroit Crime Barometer (October 2005). Wayne State University.

^ Crime in the United States 2004. Department of Justice/Federal Bureau of Investigation (accessed May 5, 2006).

^ City Crime Rankings by Population Group (2006). Morgan Quitno at www.morganquitno.com/cit06pop.htm#500,000+.

^ Broken Detroit - Death of a City Block (6-17-2001). The Detroit News.

^ Woolley, Wayne and Hunter, George (1999). Detroit Drug Houses: Out of Control. Detroit News.

^ Josar, David (6/27/05). Demolition of Detroit homes slows. Detroit News.

^ Urban Community Intervention to Prevent Halloween Arson - Detroit, Michigan, 1985-1996 (4-11-1997). CDC Wonder at aepo-xdv-www.epo.cdc.gov/wonder/prevguid/m0047208/m0047208.asp.

^ Quarterly Status Report to the Independent Federal Monitor. Detroit Police Department

^ Detroit to trim 150 cops, precincts (8/30/2005). Detroit News.

^ Kozlowski, Kim (2/27/2005). Catholic schools fight to keep doors open. The Detroit News.

^ Wolfe, Alan (6/21/1998). Enough Blame to Go Around. The New York Times, through the Manhattan Institute at www.manhattan-institute.org/html/_nyt-enough_blame.htm

^ Census 2000. School Segregation Data for the School District Area U.S. Census (accessed April 20, 2006). See also Detroit Public Schools Attendance Report. DPS Schools (accessed April 20, 2006).

^ LewAllen, Dave (8/3/2005). Detroiters Vote for New School Board. WXYZ.com.

^ MacDonald, Christine (11-23-2005). Detroit schools down by 10,000. The Detroit News.

^ MacDonald, Christine (3/17/2006). Detroit schools lose 11,500 kids at a cost of $63M. The Detroit News.

^ Bukowski, Diane (2006). Where did the first billion go?. The Michigan Citizen.

^ DTE Energy Music Theatre Listed as 2004 Top Attended Amphitheatre (1/25/05). DTE Energy Music Theatre.

^ Herb Boyd (9/17/97) Cookin' in the Motor City. The Metro Times.

^ Everyone Loves a Parade. The Parade Company.

^ Nielsen Media Research Local Universe Estimates (9/24/05) The Nielson Company

^ [http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/biography/A-E/Barden-Don-H-1943.html Don H. Barden 1943– (2006)] at referenceforbusiness.com.

^ Market Ranks and Schedule (1-50) (2006). Arbitron.com.

^ History of Eastern Market. Eastern Market Mechant's Association (accessed March 8, 2006).

^ City of Detroit Budget Cuts Lead to Closure of 101 Year Old Belle Isle Aquarium (1/14/05). Detroit Zoological Association.

^ America's Floating ZIP Code 48222 J.W. Wescott Homepage.

^ Vivian M. Baulch (1998). Marshall Fredericks -- the Spirit of Detroit. The Detroit News.

^ Sarah Karush, The Associated Press (2/23/04). Police arrest two men suspected of vandalizing Joe Louis statue. USA Today.

^ History. The Detroit APBA Gold Cup

^ Track History. CART.

^ http://info.detnews.com/history/story/index.cfm?id=91&category=sports. Detroit News.

^ http://www.visitdetroit.com/visitorcenter/aboutdetroit/dates/. Visit Detroit

^ History. FordField.com.

^ Organization History and Profile Detroit Medical Center (accessed April 29, 2006).

^ Webpage: About the School. Wayne State University School of Medicine (accessed April 20, 2006).

^ Crawford, Mark (12/04). NAFTA Border Towns. Area Development Online.

^ Ambassador Bridge Crossing Summary (5/11/05). U.S. Department of Transportation.

^ Sapte, Benjamin (2003). Southwest Airlines: Route Network Development since 1971. Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (accessed April 20, 2006).

^ Bagwell, Jennifer (12/22/99). Mass transit off track. Metro Times.

^ Detroit Area Transit Systems. focalhost.com (accessed April 20, 2006).

^ Ann Arbor to Detroit Lightrail at annarbordetroitrapidtransitstudy.com.

[edit]

Further reading

Burton, Clarence M (1896). Cadillac's Village: A History of the Settlement, 1701-1710. Detroit Society for Genealogical Research. ISBN 0-943112-21-4.

Burton, Clarence M (1912). Early Detroit: A sketch of some of the interesting affairs of the olden time. Burton Abstracts. ASIN B00085GX94.

Chafets, Zev (1990). Devil's Night: And Other True Tales of Detroit. Random House Publishing Group. ISBN 0-394-58525-9.

Farley, Reynolds, et al. (2002). Detroit Divided. Russell Sage Foundation Publications. ISBN 0-87154-281-1.

Peter Gavrilovich and Bill McGraw (2000). The Detroit Almanac. Detroit Free Press. ISBN 0-937247-34-0.

Powell, L. P (1901). "Detroit, the Queen City," Historic Towns of the Western States (New York).

Farmer, Silas (1889). History of Detroit and Wayne County and Early Michigan. Omnigraphics Inc; Reprint edition (October 1998). ISBN 1-55888-991-4.

Parkman, Francis (1994). The Conspiracy of Pontiac. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-8737-2.

Poremba, David Lee (2003). Detroit: A Motor City History. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 0-7385-2435-2.

Sugrue, Thomas J (1998). The Origins of the Urban Crisis. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-05888-1.

[edit]

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Cleveland is the county seat of Cuyahoga County, the most populous county in the U.S. state of Ohio. The municipality is located in northeastern Ohio on the southern shore of Lake Erie, approximately 60 miles (100 km) west of the Pennsylvania border. It was founded in 1796 near the mouth of the Cuyahoga River, and became a manufacturing center owing to its location at the head of numerous canals and railroad lines. With the decline of heavy manufacturing, Cleveland's businesses have diversified into the service economy, including the financial services, insurance, and healthcare sectors.

As of the 2000 Census, the city proper had a total population of 478,403, making it the 33rd largest city in the nation and the second largest city in Ohio. Recent estimates from the United States Census Bureau show it to currently be the 36th largest in the nation. It is the center of Greater Cleveland, the largest metropolitan area in Ohio, which spans several counties and is defined in several different ways by the Census Bureau. The Cleveland-Elyria-Mentor Metropolitan Statistical Area has 2,250,871 people and is the 23rd largest in the country. Cleveland is also part of the larger Cleveland-Akron-Elyria Combined Statistical Area, which is the 14th largest in the country with a population of 2,945,831 according to the 2000 Census.

City residents and tourists benefit from investments made by wealthy residents in the city's heyday, in arts and cultural institutions, and philanthropy also helped to establish a robust public library system in the city. More recent investments have provided the city with tourist attractions in the downtown area, such as Jacobs Field, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, and Playhouse Square Center. In studies conducted by The Economist in 2005, Cleveland and Pittsburgh were ranked as the most livable cities in the United States,[1] and the city was ranked as the best city for business meetings in the continental U.S.[2] Nevertheless, the city faces continuing challenges, in particular from concentrated poverty in some neighborhoods and difficulties in the funding and delivering of high-quality public education.

Residents of Cleveland are usually referred to as Clevelanders. Nicknames used for the city include The Forest City, Metropolis of the Western Reserve, The New American City, America's North Coast, Sixth City, and C-Town. Its nineteen sister cities include Volgograd, Russia; Bratislava, Slovakia; Ljubljana, Slovenia; Miskolc, Hungary; Bangalore, India; and Alexandria, Egypt.

Contents [hide]

1 History

2 Geography and climate

2.1 Geography

2.2 Cityscape

2.3 Neighborhoods

2.4 Climate

3 Demographics

4 Government and politics

5 Economy

6 Education

7 Culture

7.1 Media

7.2 Sports

8 Transportation

9 See also

10 References

11 External links

[edit]

History

Main article: History of Cleveland, Ohio

Cleveland obtained its name on July 22, 1796, when surveyors of the Connecticut Land Company laid out Connecticut's Western Reserve into townships and a capital city they named "Cleaveland" after their leader, General Moses Cleaveland. Cleaveland oversaw the plan for the modern downtown area, centering on the Public Square, before returning home, never again to visit Ohio. The first settler in Cleveland was Lorenzo Carter, who built a cabin on the banks of the Cuyahoga River. The village of Cleaveland was incorporated on 23 December 1814.[3] The spelling of the city's name was later changed to "Cleveland" when, in 1831, an "a" was dropped so the name could fit a newspaper's masthead.

Map of Cleveland in 1904.Though not initially apparent — the was adjacent to swampy lowlands and the harsh winters did not encourage settlement — the location proved providential. The city began to grow rapidly after the completion of the Ohio and Erie Canal in 1832, turning the city into a key link between the Ohio River and the Great Lakes (becoming a critical link between the Atlantic Ocean via the St. Lawrence Seaway and the Gulf of Mexico via the Mississippi River), and particularly once the city railroad links were added. The rapid growth resulted in Cleveland's incorporation as a city in 1836.[3] The following year, the city, then located only on the eastern banks of the Cuyahoga River, nearly erupted into open warfare with neighboring Ohio City (since annexed), over a bridge connecting the two. As a halfway point for iron ore coming from Minnesota across the Great Lakes and for coal and other raw materials coming by rail from the south, the site flourished. Cleveland became one of the major manufacturing and population centers of the United States, and was home to numerous major steel firms. Standard Oil founder John D. Rockefeller made his fortune there, and by 1920, it was the fifth largest city in the country. The city was also one of the centers of the national progressive movement, headed locally by Mayor Tom L. Johnson. Many Clevelanders of this era are buried in the historic Lake View Cemetery, along with James A. Garfield, the 20th U.S. President.

Aerial view of downtown Cleveland in December 1937. The Cuyahoga River winds through the Flats.In commemoration of the centennial of Cleveland's incorporation as a city, the Great Lakes Exposition debuted in June 1936 along the Lake Erie shore north of downtown. Conceived as a way to energize a city hit hard by the Great Depression, it drew 4 million visitors in its first season, and 7 million by the end of its second and final season in September 1937. The exposition was housed on grounds that are now used by the Great Lakes Science Center, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, and Burke Lakefront Airport, among others.

Immediately after World War II, the city experienced a brief boom. In sports, the Indians won the 1948 World Series and the Browns dominated professional football in the 1950s. Businesses proclaimed that Cleveland was the "best location in the nation". The city's population reached its peak of 914,808, and in 1949 Cleveland was named an All-America City for the first time. By the 1960s, however, heavy industries began to slump and residents sought new housing in the suburbs, reflecting the national trends of white flight and urban sprawl. Like other major U.S. cities, Cleveland also began witnessing racial unrest, culminating in the Hough Riots on July 18–23, 1966, and the Glenville Shootout on July 23–July 25, 1968. The city's nadir is often considered to be its default on its loans on December 15, 1978, when under Mayor Dennis Kucinich it became the first major American city to enter default since the Great Depression. National media began referring to Cleveland as "the mistake by the lake" around this time, in reference to the city's financial difficulties, a 1969 fire on the Cuyahoga River (where industrial waste on the river's surface caught on fire) and its struggling professional sports teams. The city has struggled to shed this nickname ever since, though in recent times the national media have been much kinder to the city, using it as the poster child for public-private partnerships, downtown revitalization and urban renaissance.

The metropolitan area began a recovery thereafter under Mayors George Voinovich and Michael R. White. Redevelopment within the city limits has been strongest in the downtown area near the Gateway complex—consisting of Jacobs Field and Quicken Loans Arena, and near North Coast Harbor—including the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, Cleveland Browns Stadium, and the Great Lakes Science Center. Although Cleveland was hailed by the media as the "Comeback City," many of the inner-city residential neighborhoods remain troubled, and the public school system continues to experience serious problems. Economic development, retention of young professionals, and capitalizing upon its waterfront are current municipal priorities.

[edit]

Geography and climate

[edit]

Geography

Panorama of Public Square in 1912.Cleveland is located at 41°28′56″N, 81°40′11″WGR1. According to the United States Census Bureau[4], the city has a total area of 82.4 mi² (213.5 km²). 77.6 mi² (201.0 km²) of it is land and 4.8 mi² (12.5 km²) of it is water. The total area is 5.87% water.

The shore of Lake Erie is 569 feet (173 m) above sea level; however, the city lies on a series of irregular bluffs lying roughly parallel to the lake. In Cleveland these bluffs are cut principally by the Cuyahoga River, Big Creek, and Euclid Creek. The land rises quickly from the lakeshore. Public Square, less than a mile (2 km) inland, sits at an elevation of 650 feet (198 m), and Hopkins Airport, only five miles (8 km) inland from the lake, is at an elevation of 770 feet (235 m).

Cleveland shares borders with the following suburbs: Bratenahl, Brook Park, Brooklyn, Brooklyn Heights, Cleveland Heights, Cuyahoga Heights, East Cleveland, Euclid, Fairview Park, Garfield Heights, Lakewood, Linndale, Maple Heights, Newburgh Heights, Parma, Shaker Heights, South Euclid, and Warrensville Heights.

[edit]

Cityscape

Cleveland's downtown architecture is varied. Many of the city's government and civic buildings, including City Hall, the Cuyahoga County Courthouse, the Cleveland Public Library, and Public Auditorium are clustered around an open mall and share a common neoclassical architecture. Built in the early 20th century, they are the result of the 1903 Group Plan, and constitute one of the most complete examples of City Beautiful design in the United States. The Terminal Tower, dedicated in 1930, was the tallest building in the United States outside New York City until 1967 and the tallest in the city until 1991. It is a prototypical Beaux-Arts skyscraper. The two newer skyscrapers on Public Square, Key Tower (currently the tallest building in Ohio) and the BP Building, combine elements of Art Deco architecture with postmodern designs. Another of Cleveland's architectural treasures is The Arcade (sometimes called the Old Arcade), a five-story arcade built in 1890 and renovated in 2001 as a Hyatt Regency Hotel.[3]

The Terminal Tower complex, with the Warehouse District, the Cuyahoga River, and Lake Erie in the background.Running east from Public Square through University Circle is Euclid Avenue, which at one time rivaled New York's Fifth Avenue for prestige and elegance. Known as "Millionaire's Row", Euclid Avenue was world-renowned as the home of such internationally-known names as Rockefeller, Hanna, and Hay.

The countywide Cleveland Metroparks system, often referred to as the "Emerald Necklace", includes four parks in Cleveland. In the Big Creek valley sits the Cleveland Metroparks Zoo, which contains the largest collection of primates of any zoo in the United States. The other three parks are Brookside Park and parts of the Rocky River and Washington Reservations. Apart from the Metroparks is Cleveland Lakefront State Park, which provides public access to Lake Erie. Among its six parks are Edgewater Park, located between the Shoreway and Lake Erie just west of downtown, and Euclid Beach Park and Gordon Park on the east side. The City of Cleveland's Rockefeller Park, with its many Cultural Gardens honoring the city's ethnic groups, follows Doan Brook across the city's east side.

[edit]

Neighborhoods

Downtown Cleveland includes mixed-use neighborhoods such as the Flats and the Warehouse District, which are occupied by industrial and office buildings, and also by restaurants and bars. The number of downtown housing units in the form of condominiums, lofts, and apartments has increased over the past ten years.

The west bank of the Flats and the Cuyahoga River in downtown Cleveland.Cleveland residents often define themselves in terms of whether they live on the east side or the west side of the Cuyahoga River.[5] The east side comprises the following neighborhoods: Buckeye-Shaker Square, Central, Collinwood, Corlett, Euclid-Green, Fairfax, Forest Hills, Glenville, Payne/Goodrich-Kirtland Park, Hough, Kinsman, Lee Harvard/Seville-Miles, Mount Pleasant, Nottingham, St. Clair-Superior, Union-Miles Park, University Circle, Little Italy, and Woodland Hills. The west side of the city includes the following neighborhoods: Brooklyn Centre, Clark-Fulton, Detroit-Shoreway, Cudell, Edgewater, Ohio City, Old Brooklyn, Stockyards, West Boulevard, and the four neighborhoods colloquially known as West Park: Kamm's Corners, Jefferson, Puritas-Longmead, and Riverside. Three neighborhoods in the Cuyahoga Valley are sometimes referred to as the south side: Industrial Valley/Duck Island, Slavic Village (North and South Broadway), and Tremont.

Several inner-city neighborhoods have begun to gentrify in recent years. Areas on both the west side (Ohio City, Tremont, and Edgewater) and the east side (Hough, Fairfax, and Little Italy) have been successful in attracting increasing numbers of artists, gays, and young professionals, which in turn is spurring new residential development.[6] Furthermore, a live-work zoning overlay for the city's near east side has facilitated the transformation of old industrial buildings into loft spaces for artists.[7]

[edit]

Climate

The Lake Erie shoreline is very close to due east-west from the mouth of the Cuyahoga west to Sandusky, but at the mouth of the Cuyahoga it turns sharply northeast. This feature is the principal contributor to the lake effect snow that is a mainstay of Cleveland (especially east side) weather from mid-November until the surface of Lake Erie freezes, usually in late January or early February. The lake effect causes snowfall totals to range greatly across the city; while Hopkins Airport has only reached 100 inches (254 cm) of snowfall in a given season three times since 1968[8], seasonal totals approaching or exceeding 100 inches are not uncommon in an area known as the "Snow Belt", extending from the east side of Cleveland proper through the eastern suburbs and up the Lake Erie shore as far as Buffalo.

The all-time record high in Cleveland of 104 °F (40 °C) was established on June 25, 1988, and the all-time record low of −20 °F (−29 °C) was set on January 19, 1994.[9] On average, July is the warmest month with a mean temperature of 71.9 °F (22.2 °C), and January, with a mean temperature of 25.7 °F (−3.5 °C), is the coldest. Normal yearly precipitation based on the 30-year average from 1971 to 2000 is 38.7 inches (930 mm).[10]

[edit]

Demographics

Historical populations[11]

Census

year Population Rank

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1820 606

1830 1,075

1840 6,071 67

1850 17,034 41

1860 43,417 21

1870 92,829 15

1880 160,146 11

1890 261,353 10

1900 381,768 7

1910 560,663 9

1920 796,841 5

1930 900,429 6

1940 878,336 6

1950 914,808 7

1960 876,050 8

1970 750,903 10

1980 573,822 18

1990 505,616 23

2000 478,403 33

As of the 2000 CensusGR2 , there were 478,403 people, 190,638 households, and 111,904 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,380.9/km² (6,166.5/mi²). There were 215,856 housing units at an average density of 1,074.3/km² (2,782.4/mi²). The racial makeup of the city was 41.49% White, 50.99% Black or African American, 0.30% Native American, 1.35% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 3.59% from other races, and 2.24% from two or more races. 7.26% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. Ethnic groups include German (9.2%), Irish (8.2%), Polish (4.8%), Italian (4.6%), and English (2.8%). There are also substantial communities of Hungarians, Greeks, Arabs, Ukrainians, Romanians, Czechs, Slovaks, Lithuanians, Croats, Serbs, Slovenians, and Montenegrins.

Built as the Second Church of Christ Scientists, this building on Cleveland's East Side now serves a primarily African American congregation. Cleveland's diverse cultural populations have left their mark on the city through architecture, especially with many of the older church structures which have new life serving succesor congregations.There were 190,638 households out of which 29.9% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 28.5% were married couples living together, 24.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41.3% were nonfamilies. 35.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.1% had someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.19. The population was spread out with 28.5% under the age of 18, 9.5% from 18 to 24, 30.4% from 25 to 44, 19.0% from 45 to 64, and 12.5% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 90.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.2 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $25,928, and the median income for a family was $30,286. Males had a median income of $30,610 versus $24,214 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,291. 26.3% of the population and 22.9% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 37.6% of those under the age of 18 and 16.8% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.

Cleveland was hit hard in the 1960s and early 1970s by white flight and suburbanization, further exacerbated by the busing-based desegregation of Cleveland schools required by the United States Supreme Court. Although busing ended in the 1990s, Cleveland continued to slide into poverty, reaching a nadir in 2004 when it was named the poorest major city in the United States.[12] Cleveland was again rated the poorest major city in the U.S. in 2006, with a poverty rate of 32.4%[13]

[edit]

Government and politics

Cleveland's position as a center of manufacturing established it as a hotbed of union activity early in its history. This contributed to a political progressivism that has influenced Cleveland politics to the present. While other parts of Ohio, particularly Cincinnati and the southern portion of the state, have historically supported the Republican Party, Cleveland commonly breeds the strongest support in the state for the Democrats; Cleveland's two representatives in the House of Representatives are Democrats: Dennis Kucinich and Stephanie Tubbs Jones. During the 2004 Presidential election, although George W. Bush carried Ohio, John Kerry carried Cuyahoga County, which gave him the strongest support in the state.

The city of Cleveland operates on the mayor-council (strong mayor) form of government. The mayor is the chief executive of the city, and the office is currently held by Frank G. Jackson. Previous mayors of Cleveland included progressive Democrat Tom L. Johnson, Republican Senator George V. Voinovich, two-time Democratic Ohio governor and senator Frank J. Lausche, and Carl B. Stokes, the first African American mayor of a major city.

See also: List of Mayors of Cleveland, Ohio, Cleveland City Council, and Notable Cleveland politicians

[edit]

Economy

View of downtown Cleveland from the Superior Viaduct.Cleveland's location on the Cuyahoga River and Lake Erie proved providential in the growth of the city and its industry. Cleveland experienced explosive growth after the opening of the Ohio and Erie Canal, establishing the city as one of the manufacturing centers of America. Steel and many other manufactured goods were major industries.

The city was hit hard by the fall of manufacturing, but the city has diversified its economy to include service-based industries. Cleveland is the corporate headquarters of many large companies such as National City Corporation, Eaton Corporation, Forest City Enterprises, Sherwin-Williams Company, and KeyCorp. NASA maintains a facility in Cleveland, the Glenn Research Center. Jones Day, one of the largest law firms in the world, traces its origins to Cleveland, and its Cleveland office remains the firm's largest.

Cleveland has also become a world leader in health care and health sciences. The world-famous Cleveland Clinic, the area's largest employer, is one of the highest-ranked hospitals in the United States as tabulated by U.S. News and World Report.[14] Cleveland's healthcare industry also includes University Hospitals of Cleveland, a noted competitor of the Clinic's which is ranked #18 in cancer research[15], and MetroHealth medical center.

Cleveland is emerging as a leader in biotechnology and fuel cell research, led by Case Western Reserve University, the Cleveland Clinic, and University Hospitals of Cleveland. Cleveland is now one of the top areas in receiving seed money for biotech start-ups and research. Case Western Reserve, the Clinic, and University Hospitals have recently announced plans to build a large biotechnology research center and incubator on the site of the former Mt. Sinai Medical Center, creating a research campus to stimulate biotech startup companies that can be spun off from research conducted in the city.

Additionally, city leaders stepped up efforts to cultivate a technology sector in its economy in the early 2000s. Former Mayor Jane L. Campbell appointed a "tech czar", whose job is to actively recruit tech companies to the downtown office market, offering connections to the high-speed fiber networks that run underneath downtown streets in several "high-tech offices" focused on the Euclid Avenue area. Cleveland State University hired a Technology Transfer Officer to work full time on cultivating technology transfers from CSU research to marketable ideas and companies in the Cleveland area, and recently announced the appointment of a Vice President for Economic Development that will be working to leverage the university's assets in expanding the city's economy. Case Western Reserve University is also involved in technology initiatives such as the OneCleveland project, a high-speed fiber optic network connecting all nonprofits in the area at high speeds, intended to breed collaboration among the area's major research centers and produce jobs for the city and region. OneCleveland's work attracted the attention of Intel and in mid-2005, Cleveland was named an Intel "Worldwide Digital Community" with Corpus Christi, Texas, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Taipei, Taiwan. This distinction will eventually bring to the region around $12 million for use in marketing and expanding regional technology partnerships, creating a city-wide WiFi network, and developing a tech economy. Progress has been delayed by Intel's recent focus on the recovery of New Orleans and Cleveland's recent mayoral election; however, Mayor Jackson has pledged to continue the work on the Digital Communities Initiative.[16] In addition to this Intel initiative, in January 2006 a New York-based think tank, the Intelligent Community Forum, selected Cleveland as one of its seven finalists for the "Intelligent Community of the Year" award, the only city in the United States that was chosen. The group announced that the city was nominated due to the OneCleveland network and its potential broadband applications.[17]

[edit]

Education

Adelbert Hall on the campus of Case Western Reserve University.Cleveland is home to a number of colleges and universities. Most prominent among these is Case Western Reserve University, a world-renowned research and teaching institution located in University Circle. Case is a private university, the top rated university in Ohio and #37 in the nation as rated by U.S. News & World Report, and is the home of several top-ranked graduate programs. University Circle is also home to the Cleveland Institute of Art, the Cleveland Institute of Music, and the Ohio College of Podiatric Medicine. Cleveland State University, based in downtown Cleveland, is the city's public four-year university. In addition to CSU, downtown hosts the metropolitan campus of Cuyahoga Community College, the county's two-year higher education institution, as well as Myers University, a private four-year school that focuses on business education.

The Cleveland Municipal School District is the only district in Ohio that is under direct control of the mayor, who appoints a school board. It is the largest K-12 district in the state, with 127 schools and around 69,500 students enrolled for the 2005-2006 academic year.

[edit]

Culture

The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame on the coast of Lake Erie.Five miles (8 km) east of downtown Cleveland is University Circle, a 500-acre (2 km²) concentration of cultural, educational, and medical institutions, including Case Western Reserve University, Severance Hall, University Hospitals, and the Cleveland Museum of Art. Cleveland is also home to the I. M. Pei-designed Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, located on the Lake Erie waterfront at North Coast Harbor downtown. Neighboring attractions include Cleveland Browns Stadium, the Great Lakes Science Center, the Steamship Mather Museum, and the USS Cod, a World War II submarine.

Cleveland is home to Playhouse Square Center, the second largest performing arts center in the United States behind New York's Lincoln Center.[18] Playhouse Square includes the State, Palace, Allen, Hanna, and Ohio theaters within what is known as the Theater District of Downtown Cleveland. Playhouse Square's resident performing arts companies include the Cleveland Opera, Ohio Ballet, and the Great Lakes Theater Festival. The center also hosts various Broadway musicals, special concerts, speaking engagements, and other events throughout the year. One Playhouse Square, now the headquarters for Cleveland's public broadcasters, was originally used as the broadcast studios of WJW Radio, where disc jockey Alan Freed purportedly first coined the term "rock and roll".

Additionally, Cleveland is home to the Cleveland Orchestra, widely considered one of the finest orchestras in the world, and often referred to as the finest in the United States.[19] It is one of the "Big Five" major orchestras in the United States. The Orchestra plays in Severance Hall during the winter and at Blossom Music Center during the summer.

The Free Stamp sculpture by Claes Oldenburg and Coosje van Bruggen in downtown's Willard Park.Cleveland is home to many festivals throughout the year. Cultural festivals such as the annual Feast of the Assumption in the Little Italy neighborhood, the Greek Orthodox Festival in the Tremont neighborhood, and the Harvest Festival in the Slavic Village neighborhood are popular events. Vendors at the West Side Market in Ohio City offer many different ethnic foods for sale. Cleveland hosts an annual parade on Saint Patrick's Day that brings thousands to the streets of downtown.

In addition to the cultural festivals, Cleveland also hosts the CMJ Rock Hall Music Fest, which features national and local acts, including both established artists and up-and-coming acts. The city recently incorporated an annual art and technology festival, known as Ingenuity, which features a combination of art and technology in various installations and performances throughout lower Euclid Avenue. The Cleveland International Film Festival has been held annually since 1977, and its 11-day run draws about 43,000 people. Cleveland also hosts an annual holiday display lighting and celebration, dubbed Winterfest, which is held downtown at the city's historic hub, Public Square.

Cleveland also served as the location for several noteworthy movies, including The Fortune Cookie (1967) with Walter Matthau and Jack Lemmon, the Academy Award-winning The Deer Hunter (1978), and the holiday favorite A Christmas Story (1983).[20] Scenes for the upcoming movie Spider-Man 3 were filmed in Cleveland in April 2006.[21] Cleveland is the lifelong home of cartoonist Harvey Pekar and setting for most of his autobiographical comic books. Additionally, the city was also the setting for the popular sitcom, The Drew Carey Show which starred Cleveland-native Drew Carey.

Cleveland is also the birthplace of the legendary comic book character Superman, created by Joe Shuster and Jerry Siegel, in 1932. Both attended Glenville High School, and their early collaborations resulted in the creation of "The Man of Steel".

[edit]

Media

Main article: Media in Cleveland, Ohio

Cleveland is served in print by The Plain Dealer, the city's sole remaining daily newspaper. The competing Cleveland Press ceased publication on June 17, 1982, and the Cleveland News ended its run in 1960. Cleveland also supports several alternative weekly publications, including the Free Times and Cleveland Scene.

Cleveland is ranked as the 16th largest television market by Nielsen Media Research.[22] The market is served by stations affiliated with major American networks including WKYC 3 (NBC), WEWS 5 (ABC), WJW 8 (FOX), WOIO 19 (CBS), WUAB 43 (UPN), and WBNX 55 (WB). Cleveland is also served by WVPX 23 (i) and Spanish-language channel WQHS 61 (Univision). WVIZ 25 and WEAO 49 are members of PBS. A Cleveland first in television was The Morning Exchange program on WEWS, which defined the morning show format, and served as the inspiration for Good Morning America.

Cleveland is also served by over 35 AM and FM radio stations directly, and dozens of other stations are heard from elsewhere in Northeast Ohio.

[edit]

Sports

Jacobs Field, home of the Cleveland Indians, features the largest scoreboard in North America.Cleveland's professional sports teams include the Cleveland Indians (Major League Baseball), Cleveland Browns (National Football League), and Cleveland Cavaliers (National Basketball Association). Annual sporting events held in Cleveland include the Champ Car Grand Prix of Cleveland, the Cleveland Marathon, the Mid-American Conference college basketball tournament and the Ohio Classic college football game. The city hosted the Gravity Games, an extreme sports series, from 2002 to 2004. Local sporting facilities include Jacobs Field, Cleveland Browns Stadium, Quicken Loans Arena, and the CSU Wolstein Center.

Cleveland has long been known as a "football town", and the Browns dominated the NFL from 1950 to 1955. The city's franchise is one of the most storied in football, though it last won an NFL championship in 1964 and has never appeared in the Super Bowl. The Cleveland Indians last reached the World Series in 1995 and 1997, though they lost to the Atlanta Braves and Florida Marlins, respectively, and have not won the series since 1948. Between 1995 and 2001, Jacobs Field sold out for 455 consecutive games, a Major League Baseball record. The Cleveland Cavaliers are experiencing a renaissance with Cleveland fans due to LeBron James, a native of nearby Akron and the number one overall draft pick of 2003. The city's recent lack of success in sports have earned it a reputation of being a cursed sports city, which ESPN validated by proclaiming Cleveland as its "most tortured sports city" in 2004.[23]

At the 2005 Major League Soccer All-Star Game in Columbus, MLS commissioner Don Garber announced that Cleveland was one of several top areas in contention for an expansion team in 2007. Cleveland fielded an NHL team, the Cleveland Barons, from 1976 to 1978, which was later merged into the Minnesota North Stars. The city remains without major-league hockey to the present, and the most recent incarnation of the Barons, the AHL affiliate of the San Jose Sharks, moved to Worcester, Massachusetts in 2006. The tradition of professional hockey in Cleveland stretching back to 1937[24] is slated to resume in 2007 when an AHL team purchased by Cavaliers owner Dan Gilbert begins play.[25] Cleveland was also home to the Cleveland Rockers, one of the original eight teams in the WNBA in 1997. However, in 2003, the team folded after owner Gordon Gund dropped the team from operation.

[edit]

Transportation

A collection of bridges crossing the Cuyahoga River in downtown Cleveland. The low-level bridges are drawbridges, while the high-level bridge in the background is fixed.The city is home to two airports. Cleveland Hopkins International Airport is the city's major facility and a large international airport that serves as one of three main hubs for Continental Airlines. It holds the distinction of having the first airport-to-downtown rapid transit connection, established in 1968. In 1930, the airport was the site of the first airfield lighting system and the first air traffic control tower. In addition to Hopkins, Cleveland is served by Burke Lakefront Airport, on the north shore of downtown between Lake Erie and the Shoreway. Burke is primarily a commuter and business airport, though it did welcome commercial air service through the early 1990s, and recently a Cleveland-based charter company, Destination One, announced its intentions to return limited commercial air service to Burke in 2006.

Cleveland currently has a bus and rail mass transit system operated by the Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, also known as "RTA". The rail portion is officially called the Cleveland Rapid Transit, but is better known as The Rapid. It consists of two light rail lines, known as the Green and Blue Lines, and a heavy rail line, the Red Line. RTA is currently installing a bus rapid transit line, coined the "Silver Line", which will run along Euclid Avenue from downtown to University Circle.[26]

Three two-digit Interstate highways serve Cleveland directly. Interstate 71 begins just southwest of downtown and is the major route from downtown Cleveland to the airport. I-71 runs through the southwestern suburbs and eventually connects Cleveland with Columbus. Interstate 77 begins in downtown Cleveland and runs almost due south through the southern suburbs. I-77 sees the least traffic of the three interstates, although it does connect Cleveland to Akron. Interstate 90 connects the two sides of Cleveland, and is the northern terminus for both I-71 and I-77. Running due east/west through the west side suburbs, I-90 turns northeast at the junction with I-71 and I-490, and is known as the Innerbelt through downtown. At the junction with the Shoreway, I-90 makes a 90-degree turn known in the area as Dead Man's Curve, then continues northeast, entering Lake County near the eastern split with Ohio 2. Cleveland is also served by two three-digit interstates, Interstate 480, which enters Cleveland briefly at a few points and Interstate 490, which connects I-77 with the junction of I-90 and I-71 just south of downtown.

Two other limited-access highways serve Cleveland. The Cleveland Memorial Shoreway carries Ohio 2 along its length, and at varying points also carries US 6, US 20 and I-90. The Jennings Freeway (Ohio 176) connects I-71 just south of I-90 to I-480 near the suburbs of Parma and Brooklyn Heights. A third highway, the Berea Freeway (Ohio 237 in part), connects I-71 to the airport, and forms part of the boundary between Cleveland and Brook Park.

[edit]

See also

Cleveland East Ohio Gas Explosion

Cleveland Torso Murderer (Kingsbury Run murders)

Flag of Cleveland, Ohio

[edit]

References

^ "Vancouver tops liveability ranking according to a new survey by the Economist Intelligence Unit". Accessed October 11, 2005.

^ Copestake, Jon. "Where business is a pleasure", The Economist. (December 23, 2005)

^ a b c Encyclopedia of Cleveland History.

^ Cleveland, Ohio Fact Sheet (United States Census Bureau). Accessed October 11, 2005.

^ Neighborhood Link. Accessed October 14, 2005.

^ Kennedy, Maureen and Leonard, Paul. Dealing with Neighborhood Change: A Primer on Gentrification and Policy Choices. Brookings Institution (April 2001).

^ Gill, Michael. "Can the Creative Class Save Cleveland?". Free Times (October 29, 2003)

^ Cleveland Snowfalle (sic) Statistics (National Weather Service). Accessed October 13, 2005.

^ The Weather Channel (1995-2005). Monthly Climatology Graph. Retrieved October 16, 2005.

^ NOWData - NOAA Online Weather Data (National Weather Service). Accessed April 5, 2006.

^ Gibson, Campbell. Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990. Accessed October 11, 2005.

^ The Associated Press. "Cleveland rated poorest big city in U.S." Accessed via MSNBC, October 12, 2005.

^ Diane Suchetka and Barb Galbincea "Cleveland: Poorest big city in the U.S., census shows ", The Plain Dealer. (August 30, 2006)

^ U.S. News & World Report (2005). Best Hospitals 2005: Cleveland Clinic. Retrieved October 16, 2005.

^ U.S. News & World Report (2005). Best Hospitals 2005: Cancer. Retrieved October 16, 2005.

^ Gomez, Henry "A Wireless Future? Give It Some Time", The Plain Dealer. (December 4, 2005).

^ Gomez, Henry J. "Top U.S. Broadband town: Cleveland", The Plain Dealer. (January 20, 2006).

^ Playhouse Square Center. Accessed August 14, 2006.

^ Walsh, Michael. "The Finest Orchestra? (Surprise!) Cleveland", Time. (January 10, 1994)

^ IMDb: Movies made in Cleveland. Accessed January 24, 2006.

^ Cleveland.com: 'Spider Man 3' in Cleveland. Retrieved May 20, 2006.

^ Nielsen Media Research: Metered Markets. Accessed October 11, 2005.

^ Darcy, Kieran. ESPN.com: Page 2 : Mistakes by the lake (July 13, 2004). Accessed October 11, 2005.

^ Sports E-cyclopedia: Cleveland Barons (1976-1978). Accessed October 11, 2005.

^ Cleveland Pro Hockey. Accessed May 24, 2006.

^ The Euclid Corridor Transportation Project. Accessed October 11, 2005.

[edit]

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